History-Computer

Covering computing, gaming, all of tech

The first single-chip 16-bit microprocessor

Microprocessor Explained – Everything You Need To Know

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3 Facts About Microprocessor Microprocessors were initially called “Microcomputer on a chip” until 1972. You need at least two (2) months to create a microprocessor. Microprocessors are made from quartz, metals, silicon, and other chemicals. Microprocessor History Microprocessors are computer processors containing logic, arithmetic, and control circuitry needed for a computer’s CPU to function correctly. In […]

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Liquid Crystal Display

Liquid Crystal Display Explained – Everything You Need To Know

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3 Facts about Liquid Crystal Display Magnets do not affect LCDs. At least 200million+ Liquid Crystal Display TVs get sold every year. LCDs do not produce light. Liquid Crystal Display History A liquid crystal display (LCD) is a flat and thin panel used for displaying information on watches, phones, computer monitors, televisions, and numerous other […]

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Magnetic Drum Memory Explained – Everything You Need To Know

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Magnetic drum memory was a magnetic data storage device. Since its founding in 1932, the drum became the backbone of many early computers. It formed the primary working memory of the computer and sometimes served as the secondary storage. But later on, the magnetic core memory and hard disk drives came into existence and replaced […]

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Laser Printer

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6 Facts About Laser Printer IBM invented the first laser printer in 1985. It was known as the IBM 3800 and was capable of printing 180 pages per minute.  Each laser printer cartridge is equivalent to around one gallon of oil. The majority of the components in laser printer cartridges are recyclable. Initially, laser printers were […]

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Wireless bluetooth computer keyboard

Modern Computer Keyboard: Everything You Need to Know

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Computer keyboards are peripheral data input devices modeled after the typewriter keyboards era. Since the 1970s, computer keyboards have seen a notable transformation from the traditional paper tape and punched technology to interactions through teleprinters and keypunches. Five Facts About the Modern Computer Keyboard The development of the first modern computer keyboard was occasioned by […]

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IBM First Hard Drive

Hard Disk Explained – Everything You Need To Know

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5 Facts about Hard Disk  A hard disk contains numerous substances. Hard disk typically has limited spaces. The world’s smallest hard disk was invented in 2016 by Dutch scientists. Hard disks aren’t airtight. Hard drives can be easily passworded. Hard Disk History Hard disks, otherwise regarded as hard drives or disk drives, are magnetic disks […]

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floppy disk

Floppy Disk Explained: Everything You Need to Know

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Most people know that the floppy disk was invented in 1967 by a team led by Alan Shugart at IBM. However, you can give its ideation and invention credit to Yoshiro Nakamatsu, a Japanese inventor. Floppy disks have been a crucial storage source at a time when there were no other options. The ideal storage […]

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Compact Disc Player

Compact Disc Explained – Everything You Need To Know

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3 Facts about Compact Disc  Compact discs are 1.2mm thick with a diameter of 120mm. The Eagles 1976 album is the most sold CD ever, with over 38 million copies sold. The Visitors, an album by Abba, a Swedish pop group, was the first-ever created compact disc. Compact Disc History The first workable digital compact […]

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DRAM Dynamic Random Access Memory

DRAM Explained – Everything You Need To Know

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Five Facts about Dynamic Random Access Memory  Robert Dennard invented dynamic Random Access Memory in 1966 at IBM. Dynamic Random Access Memory is dynamic (or active) because it must be refreshed regularly, or the data stored in it will be lost. The most common type of RAM is dynamic random access memory (DRAM). DRAM as […]

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Vacuum tube

The Thermionic Tube Explained — Everything You Need to Know

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3 Facts About the Thermionic Tube The Thermionic tube goes by many names, to include vacuum tubes, vacuum diodes, thermionic tubes, the Fleming valve, and kenotron.  While the device has many names, the actual device only has three components. The device heats electrons, gives them away at one end of the tube, and receives them […]

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The CRT monitor of PDP-1.

Cathode Ray Tube Explained – Everything You Need To Know

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Modern-day display technologies continue to improve with each passing year, but throughout the mid-1900s, they didn’t really move an inch. While liquid crystal displays (LCD), organic light-emitting diodes (OLED), and plasma screens dominate the industry in the 21st century, cathode ray tube (CRT) display technology is what used to be king. While this tech is […]

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Tabulating Machine

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5 Facts about Tabulating Machine Some significant facts about Tabulating machines are as follows. The tabulating machine was a counting machine used for the first for tabulating U.S. census data in 1890. Herman Hollerith invented the tabulating machine. It kept track of the number of cards that had a hole punched at a specific location. It […]

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integrated circuits

Integrated Circuit (IC) Explained — Everything You Need to Know

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3 Facts about the Circuit The Integrated Circuit was technically developed and invented by three different individuals, all unaware of each other’s work. Geoffrey Dummer conceptualized the design, Robert Noyce was granted the first patent, and Jack Kilby’s application was being reviewed while the first patent was granted.  Integrated circuits differ from their predecessors in […]

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Reading Machine of Tauschek

Optical Character Recognition (OCR) Explained — Everything You Need To Know

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Optical character recognition, often abbreviated as OCR, plays an enormous part in the text recognition software many of us rely on today through Adobe Acrobat, Google Drive, and the like. While most would assume that the ability to recognize and translate an image to text would be a modern-day invention based on some contemporary algorithm, […]

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Audion Vaccum Tube

Audion Vacuum Tube

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3 Facts about Audion Vacuum Tube It was the original vacuum tube with a control grid among the anode plate and the cathode filament (in the shape of a bent wire). Lee De Forest adjusted the current between the filament and the plate using the control grid, resulting in the first functional electronic amplifier. Audion’s […]

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The Universal Serial Bus, USB

USB: Everything You Need to Know

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Universal Serial Bus Specs Versions Maximum Data Transfer Speed Connector Types Maximum Cable Length Maximum Charging Power USB 1 12MBps Type A & Type B 3m 500mA USB-2 480Mpbs Supports all connector types. 5m 15W USB 3 5Gpbs USB 3 USB-A (Type-A)USB 3 USB-BUSB-C 3m 12W USB 4 40Gbps USB C TBC 100W The Specifications […]

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Mechanical Calculator

Mechanical Calculators

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3 Facts about Mechanical Calculators The 17th century was the beginning of the history of mechanical calculators, the first machine being Pascal’s calculator, which was invented in 1642. The mechanical calculator was first invented after three years of research and 50 prototypes. In the 18th century, the first mechanical calculator that could perform a multiplication […]

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Pioneers

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History of Computers and Computing, Mechanical calculators, Pioneers The pioneers Some of the greatest people in European scientific history are involved in this affair. Admittedly, there are others, who attempted to create such devices, but nothing had survived to our time, e.g. the Dutch Jesuit-mathematician Jan Ciermans (1602-1648), who mentioned in a 1640 book, Annus […]

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The bases of digital computers

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The modern computer is a product of many technologies, developed in 19th and 20th centuries. Who are the people and companies, who made it possible? Computer Keyboard (typewriter) Electromechanical Relay of Joseph Henry Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) monitor Vacuum Tube of John Fleming Image Scanner Audion of Lee De Forest Magnetic Tape of Poulsen & […]

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Claude Perrault

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Portrait de l’Architecte Claude Perrault, Musée de l’Histoire de la Médecine, Paris The Abaque Rhabdologique of Claude Perrault The Parisian doctor of medicine Claude Perrault (see biography of Claude Perrault) was a remarkable person—a typical encyclopaedic scientist from the end of European Renaissance. Graduating as a doctor of medicine, in his long life he was […]

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Wilhelm Schickard and the Rotating Clock (Complete History)

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Wilhelm Schickard, portrait from 1632 Wilhelm Schickard Wilhelm Schickard (see biography of Schickard) was born in the small south german town Herrenberg, near Tübingen, and educated in the Protestant theological seminary Tübinger Stift, in Tübingen. He received his bachelor degree in 1609 and master degree in theology in 1611. In 1613 he became a Lutheran […]

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Leonardo da Vinci

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The Sketch of Leonardo da Vinci (Created with the expert advice of Mr. Silvio Hénin, Milan, Italy) Leonardo da Vinci (see biography of Leonardo da Vinci) is probably the most diversely talented person ever to have lived. He was remarkable painter, engineer, anatomist, architect, sculptor, musician, etc. During his life, Leonardo produced thousands of pages […]

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Pascaline Calculator

Pascaline Calculator Explained — Everything You Need To Know

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Facts About the Pascaline Calculator  This was a calculating device invented in 1642. The calculator went through 50 prototypes.  The calculator was publicly presented in 1645. Blaise Pascal invented the machine to help his father complete tax computations more efficiently. Pascal was only 18 when he invented the calculator. Pascaline Calculator History Blaise Pascal invented […]

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Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz – Complete Biography, History and Inventions

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Who Was Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz? Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz was a well-known German mathematician, physicist, and philosopher. Noted for his independent invention of calculus and metaphysics, Gottfried von Leibniz remains one of the greatest thinkers in history. He is well-known for his contributions to the history of philosophy and mathematics. He wrote extensively on various topics […]

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Samuel Morland

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The Calculating Machines of Sir Samuel Morland The polymath Samuel Morland (see biography of Samuel Morland), was a notable English academic, diplomat, spy, inventor and mathematician of the 17th century, credited with early developments in relation to computing, hydraulics and steam power. He is an important person for this site, because in 1660s he devised […]

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René Grillet de Roven

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René Grillet de Roven In 1673 the Parisian mechanician and watchmaker of His Royal Highness King Louis XIV—René Grillet de Roven (see biography of René Grillet), published a small book Curiositez mathematiques de l’invention du Sr Grillet horlogeur a Paris. The book describes several different inventions, but the majority of it is devoted to his […]

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Alexander Rechnitzer, inventor of the Autorit

Alexander Rechnitzer – Complete Biography, History, and Inventions

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Who is Alexander Rechnitzer? Alexander Rechnitzer was an exceptionally gifted mechanic and inventor who laid the ground for fully automatic calculating machines. He was born of a German-speaking Jewish family in Bratislava (formerly Preßburg), Austro Hungarian empire, around 1880.  Rechnitzer was a holder of various patents for calculating machines in Austria, France, the USA, Sweden, […]

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Ryoichi Yazu – Complete Biography, History, and Inventions

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Who was Ryoichi Yazu? Ryoichi Yazu was a Japanese inventor. He is well known for his invention of Japan’s first mechanical calculator. Though Ryoichi Yazu lived a very short life, he proved himself to many to be a very intelligent inventor in different fields, like from dictionaries to airplanes and later to mechanical calculating machines. […]

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Victor Adding Machine – History of the Victor Adding Machine Co.

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Victor Adding Machine – History of the Victor Adding Machine Co. Oliver David Johantgen (8 July 1875, Charleston, Indiana – 11 April 1932 in Evanston, Cook, Illinois) Victor Adding Machine Victor Adding Machine Co. was established in Chicago in 1918, with the chief designer (and one of the 3 owners) Oliver David Johantgen (1875-1932), an […]

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Wales

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History of Computers and Computing, Mechanical calculators, 20th century, Wales Charles Wales Charles Wales, a genius of mechanical motion and a native of Maryland, who lived in early 1900s in Detroit, filled his first patent application for adding machine in September, 1902, and when in 1903 the US patent No. 745539 was granted, he decided […]

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Dalton Adding Machine – Complete History of the Dalton Adding Machine

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Dalton Adding Machine James Lewis Dalton (1866-1926) (see biography of James Lewis Dalton) was a successful businessman and amateur mechanic from Poplar Bluff, Butler county, Mo. He was the owner of the largest department store in the Mid-West, member of Missouri legislature and District Deputy Grand Master of the Masonic Lodge of State of Missouri. […]

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Hopkins

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History of Computers and Computing, Mechanical calculators, 20th century, Hopkins William and Hubert Hopkins machines The Hopkins brothers, William and Hubert, from Saint Louis, are the holders of more than 30 patents for 10-key adding machines and calculating mechanisms. The older brother, William W. Hopkins (1850-1916), (see biography of William Hopkins) worked as a minister, […]

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Curta Calculator

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4 Facts About Curta Calculator Some major facts about the Curta calculator are as follows Due to its design and mode of operation were dubbed the “pepper grinder” or “peppermill.” Its apparent similarity to a particular hand grenade gained it the title “math grenade.”.  Before getting surpassed by the electronic calculators in the 1970s, Curtas […]

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Gauss of Christel Hamann

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History of Computers and Computing, Mechanical calculators, 20th century, Gauss of Christel Hamann Gauss of Christel Hamann The German engineer Christel Hamann (1870-1948) (biography of Hamann) is an outstanding figure in the world of mechanical calculators. He is a holder of many patents in this area and the constructor of countless mechanisms and calculators, let’s […]

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Emory Seymour Ensign

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Ensign Electric Calculating Machine Ensign Electric Calculating Machine is a highly developed, electrically driven adding and subtracting machine, particularly suited for multiplication (by repeated addition) and semi-automatic division (subtraction and division are done by complementary addition). It was devised and patented by the mechanician from Illinois Emory Seymour Ensign (1878-1944), in the beginning of 1900s. […]

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20th century

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Twilight of the gods – 20th century The 20th century is a time of ubiquity and decline of mechanical calculating machines. In the first half of the century thousands of companies, primarily in Germany and USA, manufactured millions of mechanical calculators, cash registers, accounting machines, etc. In the second half however, especially after 1960s, when […]

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Mathias Bäuerle

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Mathias Bäuerle elder (1838-1916) and his son Tobias Bäuerle (1863-1933) Mathias Bäuerle In 1903, the German clock manufacturer from Schwarzwäld—Bäuerle Uhrenfabrik (Clock Factory), Sankt Georgen, launched his adding machine Peerless, which soon became popular and won gold medals at exhibitions in St. Louis (World’s Fair of 1904), Liège (1905) and Milan (1906). The founder of […]

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Caroline Winter's Adding Machine

Winter’s Keyboard Adder — Everything You Need to Know

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3 Facts about Winter’s Keyboard Adder  Winter’s Keyboard Adder is the first, and so far the only, mechanical calculator that was created and patented by a woman. Winter’s machine survived to modern times in the current form in which it was invented. Other original calculating machines did not continue as patented. Caroline Winter’s device was […]

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Ramón Verea

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Ramón Verea In 1878 Ramón Silvestre Verea García (1833-1899), a Spaniard, newspaper publisher in New York, patented a direct-multiplying machine, which proved to be the second patented machine of this type (after the machine of Edmund Barbour), 10 years before the first popular direct-multiplying machine of León Bollée Most early calculating machines carried out multiplication […]

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James White

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James White Many thanks to Mr. Denis Roegel, Professor at Loria, France, for his seminal work on White’s adding machine In 1822, James White (1762–1825), an English civil engineer and prolific inventor (see biography of James White), published a very interesting book—A New Century of Inventions: Being Designs and Descriptions of One Hundred Machines, Relating […]

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Abraham Jakub Stern

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Portrait of Abraham Stern (with one of his calculating machines) from 1823, artist Jan Antoni Blank The problem with the world is that the intelligent people are full of doubts, while the stupid ones are full of confidence. Charles Bukowski Abraham Jakub Stern The Polish Jew Abraham Jakub Stern (see biography of Abraham Stern), a […]

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The calculating machine of Luigi Torchi (© Biblioteca Braidense, Milan, Italy).

Luigi Torchi – Complete Biography, History, and Inventions

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Luigi Torchi was a carpenter and inventor who was credited for inventing the first direct multiplication machine. This particular machine was introduced in 1834. Torchi’s device was the second key-driven machine in the entire world, after James White’s invention, which was introduced in 1822. Early life There is very little known about the life of […]

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Joseph Abraham Valentine Turck

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History of Computers and Computing, Mechanical calculators, 19th century, Joseph Abraham Valentine Turck Joseph Turck Joseph Abraham Valentine Turck (1870-1956) was a famous figure in the world of mechanical calculators. He is the author of about 40 patents in this area, first received in 1899 (pat. №US622091), and the last in 1956. Some of his […]

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Staffel

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Izrael Abraham Staffel The Polish Jew Izrael Abraham Staffel was born in 1814 to an impoverished family in Warsaw, Poland, then part of the Russian Empire. His primary education he got at an elementary religious Jewish school, and later entered as an apprentice in a watchmaking factory. There he learned the Polish language, which enabled […]

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Millionaire Calculator Machine Explained – Everything You Need To Know

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Long before the hand-held calculators, there was the millionaire calculator machine—a large, clunky, and expensive mechanical machine that performed direct multiplications with only a single turn of a crank. Created in 1893 by Swiss engineer Otto Steiger and patented and marketed by Zurich’s Hans Egli company in 1895, the Millionaire Calculator Machine was the first […]

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Jean-Baptiste Schwilgué

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Jean-Baptiste Schwilgué (A much more detailed description of the Schwilgué’s key-driven machine can be found in the article of Mr. Denis Roegel: An Early (1844) Key-Driven Adding Machine, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 30, №1, pp. 59-65, January-March 2008) In 1844 the French Jean-Baptiste Schwilgué from Strasbourg (see biography of Jean-Baptiste Schwilgué), […]

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Chaim Zelig Slonimski

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Chaim Zelig Slonimski The Polish/Russian Jew Chaim Zelig Slonimski (see biography of Chaim Zelig Slonimski) was a Hebrew publisher, astronomer, inventor, and science author, a prominent figure in this humble website, due to his inventive calculating machines. Slonimski was born on 31 March, 1810, in Byelostok, in the Grodno Governorate of the Russian Empire. His […]

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Victor Schilt’s keyboard adder

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History of Computers and Computing, Mechanical calculators, 18th century, Victor Schilt’s keyboard adder Victor Schilt The calculating machine of the swiss clockmaker Victor (or Viktor) Schilt (1822-1880) was exhibited in 1851 at the Great exposition of the works of industry of all nations in Crystal Palace, London, and received an honorable mention and a bronze […]

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Eduard Selling

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History of Computers and Computing, Mechanical calculators, 19th century, Eduard Selling Eduard Selling In 1886 the professor of mathematics at the University of Würzburg, Germany, Eduard Selling (1834-1920) (see biography of Selling) received a patent for a calculating machine with very interesting construction. Since 1877 Selling had been commissioned by various ministries dealing with actuarial […]

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Saxonia calculating machine

Saxonia Calculating Machine Explained: Everything You Need to Know

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3 Facts About the Saxonia Calculating Machine Over 12,000 Saxonia calculating machines were manufactured and sold from 1895 to 1914. The Saxonia was a device used in addition and multiplication of numbers. It had a movable accumulator enabling the calculator to perform complex multiplication and divisions effectively. The Saxonia calculator was later developed with a […]

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