History-Computer

Covering computing, gaming, all of tech

Du Bois D. Parmelee’s key adder

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History of Computers and Computing, Mechanical calculators, 18th century, Du Bois D. Parmelee’s key adder Du Bois D. Parmelee In 1850 Du Bois (Dubois) D. Parmelee from New Paltz, state of New York, received the US patent №7074, for a single column key-driven adding machine. This is the fourth (known to us) key-driven adding machine […]

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Axel Jacob Petersson

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History of Computers and Computing, Mechanical calculators, 18th century, Axel Jacob Petersson Axel Jacob Petersson The Swedish engineer Axel Jacob Petersson (see biography of Axel Jacob Petersson), was a universal inventor and is famous with several books and articles, and the construction of railways and viaducts, including the famous railway bridge Järnvägsbron i Minnesund (launched […]

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Henry Pottin

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Henry Pottin In the middle 1870s the French engineer Henry Pottin patented the first key-set crank operated machine and made first attempt to record the items in addition. The Pottin invention implemented two of the prime principles of the first workable recording-adders; one is the depressable key-set feature and the other is the recording of […]

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David Roth

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The machines of David Roth The pin-wheel mechanism, known from the sketch of Leibniz and machines of Poleni (1709) and Braun (1727) was forgotten for a long time. It was not until about 1840, when two inventors almost simultaneously and probably independently designed pin-wheel calculating machines. First was the Polish Jew Izrael Abraham Staffel (see […]

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Charles Pidgin

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History of Computers and Computing, Calculating tools, Gadgets, Charles Pidgin Charles Pidgin The US statistician, romance novelist and amateur engineer Charles Felton Pidgin (1844-1923) (see biography of Charles Felton Pidgin) from Boston, Mass., was a holder of quite a few patents (at least 10) for various devices, like indicator, apparatus for compiling statistic (Pidgin’s system […]

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Willgodt Odhner – Complete Biography, History, and Inventions

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Who Was Willgodt Odhner? Willgodt Odhner was a Swedish inventor and engineer. He invented a mechanical calculator and founded a factory in St. Petersburg in 1880. By the 1940s, his invention- the Odhner Arithmometer, was a top-rated portable mechanical calculator worldwide. His invention was a massive success, and the production of the calculator went on […]

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Maurel and Jayet

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History of Computers and Computing, Mechanical calculators, 19th century, Maurel and Jayet The arithmaurel of Maurel and Jayet In 1841 in Paris the young French student François Timoléon Maurel (later a good French clockmaker) devised and in the next 1842 patented (patent No. FR14529) his first calculating machine for multiplication and division, which certainly can […]

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Wilhelm Kuttner Invention

Wilhelm Küttner – Complete Biography, History, and Inventions

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Who was Wilhelm Küttner Friedrich Wilhelm Küttner (1841-1920), a German businessman from Burgk bei Potschappel (near Dresden), chose to spend  his money developing a calculating machine in the early 1890s. Woldemar Heinitz conceived and built the device based on the pin-wheel mechanism known in Europe as Odhner’s wheel. Later Küttner received Swiss (CH9450, 07.12.1894), French […]

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old time arithmometer

Tate-Layton Machine Explained: Everything You Need To Know

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3 Facts About the Tate-Layton Machine The Tate-Layton machine was largely based on the work of Thomas de Colmar and other 19th century arithmometers. Charles and Edwin Layton, founders of C. & E. Layton, were originally publishers. The design was largely unchanged from the 1883 version to the end of production in 1910. Tate-Layton Machine […]

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George Barnard Grant

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George Grant’s Calculating Machines Between 1872 and 1898, the American George Barnard Grant (see biography of George Barnard Grant) of Cambridge, Massachusetts, patented and manufactured in his company Grant Calculating Machine Company of Lexington, Massachusetts, several models calculating machines. He received four patents for calculating machines—in 1872 (US Patent №129335), 1873 (№138245), 1887 (№368528) and […]

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keyboard adder model

Tito Gonnella’s Adding Machines Explained – Everything You Need To Know

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Four Facts About Tito Gonnella’s Adding Machines Tito Gonnella invented a dial adder and keyboard adding machine. His keyboard adder made some improvements on the design and is known as one of the seventh keyboard-driven machines. He received a bronze medal at the 1851 London International Exhibition for his keyboard adding machine. Tito Gonnella is […]

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Manipolatore Aritmetico of Niccola Guinigi

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Manipolatore Aritmetico of Niccola Guinigi (Created with the expert advice of Mr. Silvio Hénin, Milan, Italy) In 1850s (or even earlier) Count Niccola Guinigi-Magrini, a nobleman from Lucca, Italy, designed and produced a simple dial adder (which he called Manipolatore Aritmetico—Arithmetical Manipulator) with a unique design that summed eight-digit figures up to 99,999,999. Now the […]

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Kummer

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The adding device of Kummer Several people experimented with versions of simple mechanical calculators, that involved strips of metal with numbers marked on them mounted in a frame, where a stylus was used to slide these strips up and down. A few names that usually rise to the top of the pile in this regard […]

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Arithmometer Explained – Everything You Need To Know

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4 Facts about the Arithmometer of Thomas de Colmar Thomas de Colmar’s arithmometer was the first commercially successful calculating machine. The inventor, Thomas de Colmar, was a contemporary of Charles Babbage, who created more complex and less commercially successful mechanical calculators. The arithmometer was capable of multiplication, three-digit inputs, and six-digit results. Also known as […]

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Fowler

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The Ternary Calculating Machine of Thomas Fowler During the 1830’s the englishman Thomas Fowler (see biography of Thomas Fowler) became the sole manager and partner of the only bank in the Torrington, Devon, Messrs Loveband & Co. He also became treasurer of the Torrington Poor Law Union. The tedious nature of the calculation of payments […]

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Comptometer

Comptometer Explained – Everything You Need To Know

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Four Facts About Comptometer The Comptometer is known to be the first key-driven adding and calculating machine. Comptometers were in use until the 1990s when developments in computer technology rendered them obsolete. In 1889, the Comptometer’s inventor added a printing mechanism and received a patent for the Comptograph, a prototype for modern-day adding machines. Margarete […]

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Joseph Edmondson

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History of Computers and Computing, Mechanical calculators, 19th century, Joseph Edmondson Joseph Edmondson’s circular calculating machine In 1883 Joseph Edmondson from Halifax, England, received three Great Britain patents for a circular calculating machine, based on the stepped-drums mechanism (patents №GB188316, GB18830016 and GB188300016). The machine was manufactured for some time in Halifax, by the company […]

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Pafnuty Chebyshev – Biography, History and Inventions

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Pafnuty Chebyshev Pafnuty Lvovich Chebyshev (Пафнутий Львович Чебышёв) (1821-1894) was a prominent Russian mathematician, professor on algebra, number theory, and probability at St. Petersburg University and member of many Academies. His contributions to the science include distribution of Prime number theory, prove of fundamental limit theorems in probability theory, theory of polynomial approximations to functions, […]

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The Complete History of The Burroughs Adding Machine

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3 Facts About The Burroughs Adding Machine The Burroughs Adding Machine can still be purchased today from sites like Ebay, usually for between $70 and $300, or more depending on the condition of the machine. At one point the Burroughs Adding Machine Company had around ninety percent of the calculator market. The company made a […]

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John T. Campbell

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The Addition Machine of John Tenbrook Campbell In 1859 the young carpenter from Rockville, Indiana, John Campbell, patented a 5-positional adding device (called Addition Machine), similar to these of the French Jean Lépine and Hillerin de Boistissandeau from 1720s. John Tenbrook Campbell was born on 21 May 1833, in a farm near Montezuma, Parke County, […]

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Orlando Lane Castle

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History of Computers and Computing, Mechanical calculators, 19th century, Orlando Lane Castle Orlando Lane Castle On 24 November, 1857, Orlando Lane Castle (1822-1892), professor of Oratory, Rhetoric and Belles-Lettres at the Shurtleff College in Alton (see biography of Orlando Lane Castle), Illinois, received a patent for a calculating machine, called Improved arithmometer for adding (US […]

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Arthur Burkhardt – Biography, History and Inventions

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Arthur Burkhardt In 1876 Curt Dietzschold (1852-1922), a German mechanical engineer from Dresden was invited to come in Glashütte (a small town in Sächsische Schweiz-Osterzgebirge, which was the birthplace of the German watchmaking industry), and to became a co-owner and head of the company Strasser & Rohde (a workshop for the construction of computing machinery, […]

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Otto Büttner

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History of Computers and Computing, Mechanical calculators, 19th century, Otto Büttner Otto Büttner In 1883 Karl Otto Büttner, a mechanical engineer from Dresden, Germany, patented (together with Carl Gustav Th. Heyde) his first calculating machine (German patent №DE26640). The dimensions of the machine are: 37 x 10 x 21 cm, weight is 5,4 kg. First […]

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Frank Baldwin

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Frank Baldwin The state of calculating machine design by 1870s can be seen in a note, appearing in a 1872 issue of the popular US magazine Manufacturer and Builder: ”If a reliable calculating machine could be manufactured to retail at a low price, say five dollars, with which addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division could be […]

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The patent drawing of Joseph Bell Alexander's Calculating Machine.

Joseph Bell Alexander – Complete Biography, History, and Inventions

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While many of the greatest inventors of the 19th century are known only for what’s on their patent, the truth is that they had lives and careers outside of what they invented that sadly tended to get lost to the sands of time. Whether it be a lack of proper preservation of existing documents or […]

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Michael Bouchet

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Michael Bouchet Michael Bouchet (1827-1903) from Louisville, Kentucky, USA, was a holder of two USA patents for single-column adding devices (known also as single digit adders)—Patent №251823 from 1882 (assigned 1/2 to Bennett Downs Mattingly, a local distiller) and Patent №314561 from 1885. Monsignor Michael Bouchet was a Frenchman, born in the farm of his […]

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Edmund Dana Barbour

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Edmund Dana Barbour (Source: Harvard University Archives, HUGFP 125.32, Box 1, Folder Barbour) Edmund Barbour In 1872, a certain Edmund D. Barbour from Boston, Massachusetts, received two very interesting US patents for calculating devices (U.S. patents №№130404 and 133188), describing a machine, which seems to be the first representative of so called direct-multiplication devices (in […]

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León Bollée

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León Bollée After the first two machines, representing the class of direct-multiplying machines of Barbour and Verea, which remained relatively unknown, appeared a third one, which had a much better future—the machine of León Bollée (see biography of León Bollée) of Le Mans, France, which won a gold medal at the 1889 Paris Exposition. Most […]

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Johann Reichold

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The arithmetic machine of Johann Reichold The article was written with the expert help ofMr. Stephan Weiss,www.mechrech.info Until now, the information about the calculating machine of the German parson Reichold was very scanty. It is only mentioned in the famous book “Die Rechenmaschinen” of Ernst Martin from 1925, but without any details. It seems the […]

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19th century

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The conquering of the world — 19th century More than two centuries elapsed between the introduction of the first mechanical calculator (Schickard’s Rechenuhr of 1623) and the first large-scale and low-cost production machine (Thomas de Colmar’s Arithmometer, produced in series from 1850s). The reasons for such a delay (by the way, much longer than that […]

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Giovanni Poleni

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The calculating machine of Giovanni Poleni The professor of astronomy, meteorology and mathematics and Marquis of the Holy Roman Empire Giovanni Poleni (1683-1761) (see biography of Poleni) was one of the famous European scientists of the beginning of the 18th century. In 1709 the young professor published his first book—Miscellanea, a small collection of dissertations […]

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Pereire

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Jacob-Rodrigues Pereire In the 1751 issue of the earliest scientific journal in Europe—the french Le Journal des Sçavans, was published a description of the calculating machine of Jacob-Rodrigues Pereire (1715-1780) (see biography of Jacob-Rodrigues Pereire). The description is only textual, without any sketches (see the original description of machine of Pereire). Besides this description, almost […]

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Charles Stanhope

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The calculating machines of Charles Stanhope The British statesman and versatile scientist Charles Stanhope, Viscount Mahon (see biography of Charles Stanhope) devoted considerable part of his time and money to the developing of three calculating devices of an original design, and a logic machine (see The Demonstrator of Charles Stanhope). The calculating machines of Stanhope […]

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The calculating machine of Jewna Jacobson

Jewna Jakobson – Complete Biography, History and Inventions

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Who was Jewna Jakobson? Jewna Jakobson was a Hebrew clockmaker, mechanician, and by extension, a jeweler in the court of Polish magnates Radziwill in the town of Nieswiez. Radziwill, who owned the town from 1533, granted the Jews certain rights, which made the town a good place for them. Interestingly, Radziwill valued culture, arts, and […]

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machine of Hillerin

The Machine of Hillerin Explained – Everything You Need To Know

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Way back in 1730, the French Academy of Sciences — one of the leading authorities on scientific and mathematical inventions, theories, and the like — granted certification to a trio of machines designed by a man named Hillerin de Boistissandeau. The first was a single-tooth carry mechanism incapable of working properly if a carry needed […]

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Johann Müller

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The calculating machines of Johann Helfrich Müller The German engineer and master builder—Johann Helfrich Müller (1746-1830) (see biography of Johann Müller) is a very interesting figure in the world of mechanic calculators, not only for his small calculator, an improved version of the machine of Philipp Hahn, which he created, but for his plans to […]

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de Lépine

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The Machine Arithmetique of de Lépine In 1735 was published the first book of six volume set of Jean Gaffin Gallon—Machines et inventions approuvées par l’Academie Royale des Sciences, depuis son établissment jusqu’a présent; avec leur description, in which are described several calculating devices. Gallon was a colonel in the French army, and later the […]

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Jacob Leupold

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The Calculating Machine of Jacob Leupold In 1727, after the death of the prominent german scientist, instrument maker, physicist and mathematician Jacob Leupold (1674–1727) (see biography of Jacob Leupold) was published the 8th volume of his encyclopedia Theatrum Machinarum. This volume, entitled Theatrum arithmetico-geometricum is the best illustrated work on calculation and measurement published during […]

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Gersten

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History of Computers and Computing, Mechanical calculators, 18th century, Gersten The Arithmetical Machine of Christian Ludwig Gersten Christian Ludwig Gersten (1701-1762) (see biography of Christian Ludwig Gersten) was a good German scientist, professor of mathematics at the University of Gießen, primarily known by his book for a series of experiments, using the barometer. The interesting […]

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Caze

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History of Computers and Computing, Mechanical calculators, 18th century, Caze The New Arithmetical Machine of Caze The adding device of Caze, created sometime around 1696, could be considered as one of the most simple calculating devices, which can be invented, something like a version of the abacus or a simplified version of the Abaque Rhabdologique […]

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Anton Braun

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Anton Braun The German mechanic, constructor and optician Anton (Antonius) Braun (see biography of Anton Braun) (1686-1728) from Möhringen (Baden-Württemberg, Germany), was appointed in 1724 as a mechanician and optician of the imperial court in Vienna, Austria. In the same 1724 he started to design a calculating machine for the purposes of the court. He […]

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Philipp Matthäus Hahn

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Philipp Matthäus Hahn The cylindrical calculating machines of the German parson Philipp Matthäus Hahn (see biography of Philipp Matthäus Hahn) were the first fully functional popular four-species mechanical calculating machines (the earlier machines of Braun remained relatively obscured and unknown to the public). Philipp Hahn was a skilful mechanician, who was engaged in making clocks […]

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Jacob Auch

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History of Computers and Computing, Mechanical calculators, 18th century, Jacob Auch The Adding Device of Jacob Auch The German Jacob Auch (1765-1842) was a very good mechanic and clock-maker (see biography of Jacob Auch), interesting for us with his remarkable calculating machine. Auch was born in Echterdingen, a small town near Stuttgart. In the same […]

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Man-Computer Symbiosis

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Man-Computer Symbiosis J. C. R. LickliderIRE Transactions on Human Factors in Electronics,volume HFE-1, pages 4-11, March 1960 Summary Man-computer symbiosis is an expected development in cooperative interaction between men and electronic computers. It will involve very close coupling between the human and the electronic members of the partnership. The main aims are 1) to let […]

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18th century

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The Sun rises—18th century The manufacturing of calculating machines is not an industry yet, but still a bizarre hobby of some clockmaker, mechanician, scientist, etc. But the sunrise is coming… Giovanni Poleni (1709) César Caze (1720) Jean Lépine (1725) Jacob Leupold (1727) Anton Braun (1727) Hillerin de Boistissandeau (1730) Christian Ludwig Gersten (1735) Jacob-Rodrigues Pereire […]

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Dreamers 3

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History of Computers and Computing, Internet, Dreamers The Dreamers and the Godfathers In this section I’ll present some people, who had a vision of or defined some aspects or features of communication networks, Internet and WWW, several decades (or even centuries) before their actual implementing as a global communication network of knowledge: Robert Hooke Claude […]

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Maturing of the Net

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History of Computers and Computing, Internet, Maturing of the Net Maturing of the Net In this section will be presented some people and events, who established the foundations of the modern Internet tools and technologies. First chat program, Murray Turoff, 1971 The First E-mail Message, Ray Tomlinson, 1971 Project Gutenberg—first digital library, Michael Hart, 1971 […]

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Internet conquers the world

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History of Computers and Computing, Internet, Internet conquers the world Internet conquers the world Why Internet became so ubiquitous technology and conquered the world? Which are the “killer” applications and ideas, which allowed this to happen? Who are the smartest guys, who got the inspiration and energy to create such applications? Let’s try to understand… […]

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The First Computer Virus of Bob Thomas Explained: Everything You Need to Know

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4 Facts about the First Computer Virus of Bob Thomas The First Computer Virus was written in-house. It wasn’t deployed with any malicious intent. It’s more of a security test than a virus. Its original name is Creeper. First Computer Virus History The First Computer Virus, Creeper, was named after a Scooby-Doo cartoon show character. Creeper […]

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First chat program of Murray Turoff

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History of Computers and Computing, Internet, Birth, First chat program of Murray Turoff First chat program of Murray Turoff In 1971 the Ph.D. in Physics Murray Turoff (born in San Francisco, February 13, 1936), while working in the U.S. Office of Emergency Preparedness (a federally coordinated system that augments the Nation’s medical response capability), designed […]

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