Technology permeates everything today. While software continues to grow and invisibly manage more of our lives, it’s often the actual physical products that become iconic and associated with certain eras. 

Breakthrough personal technology products like the walkman, ipod, and gameboy show this best. Others like TI graphing calculators have been a staple in education for decades. 

With the recent boom in cloud computing, cryptocurrencies, and gaming, hardware like GPUs has become increasingly mainstream. 

History Computer has assembled the most important and iconic tech products below.

USB – Complete History of the Universal Serial Bus

USB - Complete History of the Universal Serial BusUniversal Serial BusIn 1990, while installing a new printer on his wife's computer, the 33 y.o. Ajay Bhatt, then a senior staff architect on the chipset architecture team of Intel, was confronted with a huge frustration: connecting new peripheral devices (such as printers, modems, joysticks and scanners),...

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ENIAC – Complete History of the ENIAC Computer

ENIACMore than 25 years ENIAC was considered as the first digital electronic computer in the world. As late as in the beginning of 1970s this assertion was proved as false. First by the famous trial Sperry Rand Corporation vs. CDC and Honeywell, which started in 1971, and later by the information, which began to emerge...

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The History of Colossus Computer

Colossus computer of Max Newman and Tommy FlowersThe WWII hindered the progress for computer inventors like Atanasoff and Zuse, but had the opposite effect on the first british steps toward creation of electronic computer. During the war, the Department of Communications of British Foreign Office created machines, which used electronic circuits to assist the British...

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PDP-11 – Complete History of the DEC PDP-11 Computer

PDP-11 - Complete History of the DEC PDP-11 ComputerPDP-11After the famous PDP-1 in 1960, DEC established a successful business and during the 1960s launched its remarkable 12-bit PDP-8 series of minicomputers. During the late 1960s however, the time had come for the introduction of a 16-bit machine to replace the PDP-8. In 1967, one of...

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Ferranti Mark 1 – Complete History of the Ferranti Mark 1 Computer

Ferranti Mark 1The world's first commercially available general-purpose electronic computer was the English machine Ferranti Mark 1, launched in February 1951. It was based on the previous computers Small Scale Experimental Machine and Manchester Mark 1 of Frederic Williams and Tom Kilburn.Only two months after the successful test run of the Small Scale Experimental Machine...

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Altair 8800 – Complete History of the MITS Altair 8800

Altair 8800In contrast with the first microprocessor based personal computer—Micral, the MITS Altair 8800 was extremely successful market product. The designer—Ed Roberts intended to sell only a few hundred to hobbyists, but he was surprised when he sold thousands in the first month.The microcomputer was sold by mail order through advertisements in Popular Electronics, Radio-Electronics...

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Xerox Alto – Complete History of the Xerox Alto Computer

Butler W. Lampson (left photo), the visioneer of Xerox Alto and Charles P. (Chuck) Thacker, the project leaderXerox AltoIf any computer in this section deserves the label "remarkable", it is namely the Xerox Alto, developed at Xerox PARC (Palo Alto Research Center) in 1972. Why?The Alto greatly influenced the design of personal computers in the...

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Apple II – Complete History of the Apple II

Apple IIStephen Gary "Woz" Wozniak (born August 11, 1950 in San Jose, California) is an American computer engineer, a legendary person in the world of computers. And the main reason for this remarkable recognition is the computer Apple II (often written as Apple ][). By the end of its production in 1993, somewhere between five...

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Commodore 64 – History of the Commodore 64 Computer

Commodore 64The 8-bit home computer Commodore 64 (commonly known as the C64 or C=64), introduced by Commodore International in January, 1982, was a machine with remarkable market success. Volume production started sometime in the spring of 1982, with machines being released on to the market in August at a price of $595. During the his...

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Datapoint 2200 – Complete History of the Datapoint 2200

Datapoint 2200 - Complete History of the Datapoint 2200Datapoint 2200In the end of 1960's, two graduates at Case Western Reserve University in Ohio, Harry Pyle and Victor D. Poor, came up with the idea of a high density integrated circuit which would be programmable. They offered this circuit design to various IC manufacturers and were...

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CT-650 – History of the Arkay Computer Trainer Model 650

Computer Trainer Model 650The Computer Trainer Model 650 (named also CT-650), developed by Irving Becker, was one of the earliest digital personal computers. Some sources list this computer as the Arkay CT-650, because like many who were involved with early computers, Irving Becker started off in radio and from 1945 was an owner of a...

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Hewlett Packard 9100A – Complete History of the HP9100A

Thomas E. Osborne, who joined Hewlett Packard in 1965 as a consultant with the responsibility for developing the architecture of the HP9100A Desktop Computing CalculatorHewlett Packard 9100AIn the same 1968, when Alan Kay started to dream for his "personal computer for children of all ages", the famous manufacturer of electronic devices Hewlett-Packard Co. launched a...

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Hewlett Packard 9830A – Complete History of the HP9830A

Hewlett Packard 9830A - Complete History of the HP9830AHewlett Packard 9830AAfter introducing in 1968 the remarkable programmable calculator HP-9100A, which is probably the first device in the world, called "personal computer", HP released newer, more advanced systems to replace the aging and limited HP-9100A. These include the HP-9810A in 1971, HP-9820A and the HP-9830A in...

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Dynabook – Complete History of the Dynabook Computer

DynabookAlan Kay is an American computer scientist, known for his early pioneering work on computers, object-oriented programming and windowing graphical user interface design.Alan Curtis Kay was born on May 17, 1940, in Springfield, Massachusetts. He earned a Bachelor's degree in Mathematics and Molecular Biology in the University of Colorado at Boulder. Before and during this...

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IBM PC 5150

IBM 5150The biggest computer manufacturer in the world—IBM, was in a difficult situation in 1970s. Despite of the IBM strategy and multimillion efforts to get into the small computer market, it was dominated by the Commodore PET, Atari 8-bit family, Apple II and Tandy Corporation's TRS-80s, as well as various CP/M machines.IBM dominated the market...

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Linc – Complete History of the Linc Computer

LINCThe LINC (aboratory INstrument omputer) was designed in the end of 1961 by Wesley Clark and built in the beginning of 1962 by Charles Molnar and others (Wesley Clark designed the logic, while Charles Molnar did the engineering) at Lincoln Laboratory of MIT, Massachusetts, and eventually launched by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) in March, 1962...

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Osborne 1 – Complete History of the Osborne 1 Computer

Osborne 1Adam Osborne is a British author, book and software publisher, one of the most charming, persuasive, egotistical, and supremely confident people in the computing field, indeed, in all industry.Adam Osborne was born in Thailand in 1939 to British parents and spent much of his childhood in Tamil Nadu in South India, where his father,...

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Micral – Complete History of the Micral Computer

It appears the first computer, fulfilling the all abovementioned conditions is the french Micral N. It was introduced in 1973, powered by Intel's 8008 chip, and was the first commercial non-kit computer based on a microprocessor. It was conceived in France by François Gernelle, an ex-engineer at Intertechnique (a french high-tech company). The term microcomputer...

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Macintosh by Apple – Complete History of Mac Computers

Macintosh by Apple – Complete History of Mac Computers
The Macintosh, or Mac, is a series of several lines of personal computers, manufactured by Apple Inc. The first Macintosh was introduced on January 24, 1984, by Steve Jobs and it was the first commercially successful personal computer to feature two known, but still unpopular features—the mouse and the graphical user interface, rather than the...

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Poqet PC – Complete History of the Poqet PC

Poqet PC - Complete History of the Poqet PCJohn Fairbanks (© 2010 Lydell Photography)Poqet PCIn 1987, the Texas Instruments' engineer John Fairbanks (EE'71 from Missouri University of Science and Technology) started Poqet Computer Co. with his former TI coworker Stav Prodromou (which became president of Poqet, while Fairbanks was a vice-president), and Robb Wilmot (former...

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Scelbi-8H – Complete History of the Scelbi-8H Computer

Scelbi-8H - Complete History of the Scelbi-8H ComputerScelbi-8HIn the same early-1973 timeframe as the Micral made its debut, Nate Wadsworth and Bob Findley, founders of the brand new Scelbi Computer Consulting (SCientific ELectronic BIological, pronounced "sell-bee"), of Milford, Connecticut, designed the 8008-based Scelbi-8H microcomputer, which is now recognized as being the first microprocessor-based computer kit...

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Simon Personal Communicator – Complete History of the Computer by IBS

Simon Personal Communicator - Complete History of the Computer by IBSSimon Personal CommunicatorThe first smartphone in the world—IBM Simon Personal Communicator—was announced at the COMDEX computer and technology trade show in Las Vegas, on 23 November, 1992. Although the term smartphone was not coined until 1997, Simon's features and capabilities (see the Users Manual of...

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Sinclair ZX80 – Complete History of the Sinclair ZX80 Computer

Sinclair ZX80 - Complete History of the Sinclair ZX80 ComputerJim Westwood, the designer of Sinclair ZX80Sinclair ZX80In May, 1979, Jim Westwood, the Chief Engineer of Science of Cambridge Ltd (a British consumer electronics company, incorporated in 1973 by Sir Clive Marles Sinclair), started a project to design a new microcomputer (to replace the first microcomputer...

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TRS-80 – Complete History of the TRS-80 Computer

TRS-80 - Complete History of the TRS-80 ComputerTRS-80In 1975, Don French, a buyer for the company Radio Shack (a successful American chain of electronics stores, owned by Tandy Corp.) in the West Coast, purchased a MITS Altair computer, which he used for inventory control. He became so fond of his new toy, that began designing...

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Sol-20 – Complete History of the Sol-20 Computer

Lee Felsenstein in 2005 (© Marcin Wichary)Sol-20Lee Felsenstein (b. 1945 in Philadelphia) is an American computer engineer who played a significant role in the development of the personal computer, designing two important machines—Sol-20 and Osborne 1 (one of the first portable computers), as well as another computer hardware.In November 1975, the electronics engineer Robert M....

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Wang 2200 – Complete History of the Wang 2200 Computer

Wang 2200 - Complete History of the Wang 2200 ComputerWang 2200Wang Laboratories was a computer company founded (with $15000) in 1951 by Dr. An Wang (1920-1990). An Wang emigrated from China in 1945 (he became a US citizen in 1954) and had gotten Masters and Ph.D. degrees in applied physics in 1948 at Harvard. Wang...

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Wordstar – Complete History of Wordstar Word Processor

The creators of WordStar, John Robbins Barnaby (left) and Seymour Ivan Rubenstein (right)WordStarIn June 1978, Seymour Ivan Rubenstein (b. 1934), director of marketing for IMS Associates Inc. (a California based computer manufacturer, which designed the IMSAI computer), left the company with $8500 in cash and established his own software company, named MicroPro International Inc, one...

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Memex – Complete History of the Memex of Vannevar Bush

Vannevar Bush on the cover of Life magazine, September, 1945MemexVannevar Bush (biography of Vannevar Bush) (1890-1974) was an American engineer, policymaker and science administrator, known primarily for his work on analog computing and his political role in the development of the atomic bomb.In 1945, in the article As We May Think (the paper was originally...

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