As computing has become more mainstream and vital to our everyday lives many concepts have emerged that help us better understand how computers work and what they are capable of.

Computer science has developed many of these concepts like big data, machine learning, and applied algorithms. Others, like the blockchain, have sprung from the boom in cryptocurrencies like bitcoin. Some concepts can be attributed to academia as well as science fiction, like artificial intelligence. 

History computer has written on the most important concepts in computing and computer science below:

George Stibitz Distant Computer Work

History of Computers and Computing, Internet, Dreamers, George Stibitz Distant Computer WorkGeorge Stibitz—remote access to a computerThe Relay Computers and the life of George Stibitz had already been examined in other sections of this site. Here we will pay attention only to his pioneering work in the field of remote access to a computer.In the...

Read more ...

Internet

When on 4th of October, 1957, the USSR launched Sputnik I (a 70 kgs bleeping sphere the size of a medicine ball) into Earth orbit, the effect in the United States was electrifying, since it seemed overnight to wipe out the feeling on invulnerability, the country had enjoyed since the explosion of the first nuclear...

Read more ...

The History of Next Differential Engines

History of Computers and Computing, Babbage, Next differential enginesNext differential enginesInspired by the Differential engine of Babbage, several other inventors tried and managed to construct workable differential engines.Pehr Georg Scheutz and Edvard ScheutzMartin WibergGeorge GrantChristel HamannAlexander John Thompson

Read more ...

Internet 2

History of Computers and Computing, InternetBirth of the ARPANETIn this section I'll present some evetns and people, who in the period 1960-1969 established not only the theoretical foundations of Internet's network topology and invented some key technologies of WWW, but also implemented the father of Internet—ARPANET:Ted NelsonDouglas EngelbartLeonard KleinrockPaul BaranDonald DavisJoseph Carl Robnett LickliderLarry RobertsCharles...

Read more ...

Analog computers

At one time, when digital computers have not existed yet or they lacked sufficient performance, the analog computers were widely used (even the ancient Antikythera mechanism and the slide rule can be considered as analog computing devices). The advent and rapid progress of digital computers made analog computers largely obsolete in 1950s and 1960s, though...

Read more ...

Maturing of the Net

History of Computers and Computing, Internet, Maturing of the NetMaturing of the NetIn this section will be presented some people and events, who established the foundations of the modern Internet tools and technologies.First chat program, Murray Turoff, 1971The First E-mail Message, Ray Tomlinson, 1971Project Gutenberg—first digital library, Michael Hart, 1971First computer virus, Bob Thomas, 1971Making...

Read more ...

Internet conquers the world

History of Computers and Computing, Internet, Internet conquers the worldInternet conquers the worldWhy Internet became so ubiquitous technology and conquered the world? Which are the "killer" applications and ideas, which allowed this to happen? Who are the smartest guys, who got the inspiration and energy to create such applications?Let's try to understand...IRC, Jarkko Oikarinen, 1988Archie,...

Read more ...

Man-Computer Symbiosis

Man-Computer SymbiosisJ. C. R. LickliderIRE Transactions on Human Factors in Electronics,volume HFE-1, pages 4-11, March 1960SummaryMan-computer symbiosis is an expected development in cooperative interaction between men and electronic computers. It will involve very close coupling between the human and the electronic members of the partnership. The main aims are 1) to let computers facilitate formulative...

Read more ...

Analog computers 2

At one time, when digital computers have not existed yet or they lacked sufficient performance, the analog computers were widely used (even the ancient Antikythera mechanism and the slide rule can be considered as analog computing devices). The advent and rapid progress of digital computers made analog computers largely obsolete in 1950s and 1960s, though...

Read more ...

The bases of digital computers

The modern computer is a product of many technologies, developed in 19th and 20th centuries. Who are the people and companies, who made it possible?Computer Keyboard (typewriter)Electromechanical Relay of Joseph HenryCathode Ray Tube (CRT) monitorVacuum Tube of John FlemingImage ScannerAudion of Lee De ForestMagnetic Tape of Poulsen & PfleumerMagnetic Drum of Gustav TauschekOCR of Gustav...

Read more ...

Logarithms

The Logarithms and RulesIn July 1614 in Edinburgh, Scotland, was published a small book (fifty-seven pages of explanatory matter and ninety pages of tables) which will make a key advance in the use of mathematics. The book was Mirifici Logarithmorum Canonis Descriptio (Description of the Marvelous Canon of Logarithms), written by a Scotsman—John Napier (see...

Read more ...

Asimov’s Laws of Robotics (Complete History)

Asimov's Laws of RoboticsIn October 1941 the young American writer Isaac Asimov wrote the science fiction short story "Runaround", which was first published in the March 1942 issue of Astounding Science Fiction magazine. The story (it later appears in the collections I, Robot (1950), The Complete Robot (1982), and Robot Visions (1990)) featured the recurring...

Read more ...

The History of Early Automata

Early AutomataThe word automat is the latinization of the Greek word αὐτόματον, which means acting of one's own will. It is more often used to describe moving machines, especially those that have been made to resemble human or animal actions.Many ancient mythologies include artificial people, e.g. the mechanical servants built by the Greek god Hephaestus...

Read more ...

The History of Automata

If the computer can be described as a thinking machine, then a robot can be descibed as a thinking and operating machine. Many centuries ago, men like Thomas Aquinas and René Descartes proposed that animals and even people might be regarded as automatic machines. Just to mention, that as of the end of 2010, there...

Read more ...

Early Technologies

History of Computers and Computing, Early TechnologiesIn this section I'll try to reveal some of the men, who developered several important early technologies and devices.Early (fairy-tale) automataFrançois WillèmeJoseph JacquardAlessandro VoltaOliver EvansJoseph FaberEmile BaudotLyman Frank BaumAngela RoblesCalvin Mooers

Read more ...