What is the MiSTer FPGA Emulator?

Retro arcade game machine vintage

What is the MiSTer FPGA Emulator?

If you enjoy playing retro games, there’s a strong chance you’ve considered emulation. One of the newest toys for techies is the MiSTer FPGA emulator, and it’s a fantastic way to play older games with incredible accuracy.

The MiSTer project is open source, and while it’s similar to other emulation consoles, the microchip makes it unique. We’re going to explain what sets the MiSTer game console apart and touch on what to expect if you’re interested in trying one of these systems.

Retro video game press start

The MiSTer emulator is your perfect solution to playing your favorite retro games!


The MiSTer Project Explained

If you wondering what the MiSTer FPGA emulator is, the answer is relatively simple: It’s a hardware emulator designed to mimic certain consoles, allowing the user to play older cabinet and console games. It’s similar in concept to emus, like the ones in our best Nintendo Entertainment System emulators roundup, but in an entirely different class.

These systems use hardware coupled with MiSTer software. This combination provides low to lag-free gaming and high accuracy—two critical things when you need to replicate classic cabinet games.

That means the MiSTer FPGA emulator is technically a miniature console that’s closer to the Raspberry Pi or Odroid than any software-based solution. Unless you buy one preassembled, you’ll need to purchase parts, including a USB Hub, RAM module, a DE-10 Nano board, and a case for the console itself.  

The software that powers the console is free and created by Alexey Melnikov, otherwise known as Sorgelig. It’s been in constant development since its initial release and is handled by a strong community of developers and retro game enthusiasts.

4 Facts About MiSTer FPGA

  • MiSTer FPGA emulates older consoles, computers, and arcade hardware
  • A MiSTer FPGA console can provide lag-free gaming
  • Cores are used in place of traditional cartridges or disks
  • Emulation is possible for more than 80 different systems

How Does MiSTer FPGA Work?

One reason MiSTer FPGA emulator consoles are so successful is the microchip inside, known as an FPGA, which stands for field-programmable gate array. This special chip allows users to reprogram it to suit their needs, which makes them perfect for emulation.

Programming these chips through hardware descriptor language (HDL) opens things up for developers that want to emulate a PC or gaming console. That programming isn’t permanent, so you can make changes as needed, unlike an ASIC or application-specific integrated circuit.

FPGA processing is incredibly efficient with emulation, which allows software like MiSTer to produce a low-latency and nearly lag-free experience for gamers. The tech itself has been around since the 80s and rose in popularity through emulation boxes (also known as consoles).

One example is the NES Classic Edition, which launched as an official system with an ARM-based chip. It provides emulation for a batch of classic 30 Nintendo games but is hackable, so 700 games were quickly made available for gamers around the globe. Other manufacturers followed on the success of that mini console, but are not as versatile as a MiSTer emulation machine.

Having dedicated hardware allows you to make use of HDMI and USB ports along with a MicroSD slot. You can take a simple approach and keep the system basic with minimal components or expand it to better suit your gaming needs. The software works in a similar fashion to core-based systems like RetroArch. This allows you to load the emulator core you need and tweaks a wide range of system settings.

What Do You Need for MiSTer FPGA?

ANSI vs ISO keyboards

The MiSTer FPGA works to emulate several different consoles, so you have endless game choices.

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There are two ways to obtain a MiSTer FPGA emulator–-you can buy it or build it. Building your own mini console lets you customize the setup. It also helps you get to know the hardware, which comes in handy if you need to repair or expand the system.

Putting together a MiSTer game console is a rewarded experience but could prove challenging for some users. It’s not ready to go out of the box, and you won’t get some of the extras found with pre-built kits. It can be cheaper to build your own, however.

At a minimum, to build a MiSTer multisystem console, you’ll need to purchase a Terasic DE10-nano board, case, USB hub, power supply, and 128MB SDRAM. You may need a heat sink and fan, depending on the case you choose for the system. An IO board is also an option if you plan to use analog for a CRT display.

By comparison, a preassembled MiSTer FPGA kit is almost ready for action aside from software and cores. This kit from MiSTer Addons comes in several configurations in a sleek aluminum case. These mini consoles aren’t found through major retailers, so you have to keep the quality of the components used in mind.

Communities like r/MiSTerFPGA on Reddit and MiSTerFPGA forums are a great way to check out sellers and source parts beforehand. With either style of console, don’t forget about additional components like controllers, microSD cards, and other MiSTer add-ons.       

How Much Does a MiSTer FPGA Emulator Cost?

Pricing can be a major factor in whether you choose to build or buy a MiSTer console. It’s also an area that’s subject to change with supply shortages on certain components at any given time. Pre-built system prices vary by the designer (or builder of the console) with just as much variance.

The price of a prebuilt MiSTer FPGA console can be anywhere from $500 to over $700. It largely depends on who built it, the components, and the console case. Upgraded models can cost more than a traditional gaming console but will save you from a lot of headaches if you aren’t technically inclined.

Building a MiSTer FPGA kit from scratch is cheaper but can still become expensive. The priciest component is the board which runs between $150 and $250. The DE10-Nano dev kit is the top option with a dual-core 800MHz ARM Cortex-A9 chip and 1GB DDR3 SDRAM.

An ACD-in board for audio is an inexpensive accessory at around $10. A heat sink is the same price, while a USB hub is $30 to $50. Cases can cost from $30 for the acrylic to more than $50 for metal, although you can save money if you own a 3D printer by simply printing the case.

The cost to build your own MiSTer console is typically between $400 and $600. That largely depends on the peripherals you own and the components you choose. It’s also important to remember that pricing on parts can change quickly, so be sure to compare your options before choosing between kits or a pre-built machine.

What Does MiSTer Emulate?

Once you know what the MiSTer FPGA emulator is, it’s time to think about the types of games you want to play. This is where things can become tricky and where competing mini-consoles come into play. If you want to play anything from the PlayStation 2 era onward, you’ll want to look towards a software emulator.

When it comes to retro games and early consoles, the selection is impressive. The MiSTer project can replicate the gameplay of more than 80 systems with fantastic accuracy. That includes classics like the SNES, Genesis, and Commodore 64, along with Bally Astrocade.

There are also plenty of classic computers, including the Apple Macintosh Plus and Sharp MZ Series. Those are the current cores that work with MiSTer multisystem consoles, although more are in active development.

MiSTer FPGA Alternatives

Whenever a popular piece of tech arrives on the market, there is always a wave of copycat products. It happens with traditional consoles occasionally, and the same holds true for micro consoles designed for retro games.

Whether the MiSTer FPGA emulator is the best is always a hot topic, but there are a number of alternatives that perform similar functions. One of the most popular is RetroPie. Gamers use this program alongside a Raspberry Pi or ODroid board to emulate PC, console, and arcade games.  

If you’re interested in a more traditional experience and love arcade games, there are unique options from Arcade1up. You can purchase a replica cabinet for games like Killer Instinct, NBA Jam, Dragon’s Lair, or The Simpsons.

Prefer something more intense? You can get that with the Terminator 2 Arcade Machine, which has dual guns and haptic feedback.

A multiconsole like the RetroN5 or Polymega is an alternative to software emulators and the MiSTer FPGA. They aren’t as accurate, however, and can struggle to run homebrew carts. By comparison, the MiSTer FPGA console is programmed to “accurately” replicate the system of your choosing. It also won’t give you hiccups on a modern TV.


While there are several viable alternatives if you want to play Super Mario Brothers on your PC, software emulators aren’t as precise as a MiSTer console with the right cores.

Gamers interested in learning more about the MiSTer FPGA project should start with the official MiSTer FPGA Wiki.

If you are still on the fence about supported systems or titles, we have that covered as well.

CategoryMiSTer Project
Release DateJune 2017
Original CreatorAlexey Melnikov
Current DeveloperMiSTer Team
Programming LanguageVerilog, VHDL, SystemVerilog
Operating SystemsNot applicable
PlatformTerasic DE10-nano
Original PriceFree
DiscontinuedActive development


Frequently Asked Questions

Is Mister FPGA emulation better than a software emulator?

While subject to debate, most gamers feel that when properly set up with the right core, an FPGA console will outperform software emulators.

What’s the best place to get add-ons or expand a MiSTer console?

Two of the more popular and highly rated options in the community are MiSTERaddons and MiSTERKits.

Can MiSTer really provide lag-free gaming?

Yes, when properly set up, although you could experience slight differences between the display or controllers depending on your settings and equipment.

Can you use light guns and original peripherals with a MiSTer FPGA emulator?

Yes. The MiSTer console excels with peripheral support through low-latency USB adapters and accessories from Daemonbite, SNAC, and Bliss.

Should you use cooling with a MiSTer console?

A heat sink is advised, but active cooling is preferred if the console will see a lot of action.

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