What Is E-Waste? How the Digital World Impacts the Environment

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What Is E-Waste? How the Digital World Impacts the Environment

Key Points

  • E-waste, or electronic waste, refers to discarded electronic devices and gadgets that contain toxic materials and can harm the environment if not handled properly.
  • There are ten types of e-waste, including large appliances, small appliances, IT equipment, consumer electronics, luminaires, toys, tools, medical devices, instruments, and dispensers.
  • Improper disposal of e-waste leads to the release of toxic substances into the environment, contaminating land, water, and aquatic life.
  • Recycling e-waste is crucial to recover valuable materials, prevent pollution, and reduce the environmental impact of electronic devices.

In our ever-growing world of technological dependency, it seems we’re always throwing away older devices in favor of the latest and greatest electronics on the market. These constant upgrades leave us with an overwhelming pile of old gadgets. However, what many people don’t realize is that tossing these items into the trash can be incredibly harmful to the environment. E-waste, as it’s called, contains toxic materials and other vital components that can pollute our surroundings if not handled properly. Here’s all you need to know about electronic waste.

E-Waste Explained

Man fixing broken computer.
Many electronic devices have the potential to become e-waste.

E-waste, or electronic waste, is a term used to describe discarded electronic devices and gadgets. It can include everything from old or broken appliances to electronics like smartphones and laptops to items as large as TVs and refrigerators. When these electronics are no longer wanted or useful, they become e-waste. It should never be thrown away like trash and there’s a growing global concern about how much e-waste has already been improperly disposed of.

It doesn’t matter if the electronics are going to be refurbished, reused, resold, or outright thrown away. It’s all considered e-waste. And, across the board, it’s piling up more quickly than ever. This is because technology is evolving at its fastest rate yet, leading people to replace their devices with newer models at a rapid pace. Unfortunately, all this discarded junk is so much more than just clutter — it’s outright toxic. 

E-waste is riddled with toxic materials like lead, mercury, and cadmium. All of these harmful elements eventually leak into the environment when not handled with proper care. After a time, it starts to release harmful chemicals into the air, soil, and water. Such improper disposal of e-waste can harm both the environment and humanity alike. To avoid these issues, it’s essential to recycle e-waste responsibly. 

Types of E-Waste

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Review the types of e-waste listed below so you don’t inadvertently cause environmental harm.

Now that you have a better idea of the basics behind e-waste, let’s break down the ten types of electronic waste as defined by the Environmental Protection Agency (or EPA). From appliances to electronics to toys and beyond, these are the devices that the EPA considers a potential danger to the environment and our health.

Large Appliances

Large appliances are perhaps the biggest form of e-waste. These big household items include refrigerators, ovens, washing machines, and air conditioners, among other examples. All contain a trove of harmful chemicals inside.

Small Appliance

Likewise, small appliances make up another generous portion of our global e-waste. These include smaller gadgets like toasters, microwaves, blenders, and coffeemakers. These types of small household appliances tend to have a much shorter lifespan than larger ones.

IT Equipment

This category includes computers, laptops, and servers. When these devices are outdated or broken, they become e-waste. In addition to their harmful components, they may also contain valuable materials to be recycled.

Consumer Electronics

This category covers common gadgets, such as smartphones, TVs, and gaming consoles. Because of their small size, human instinct encourages us to simply toss them in the dumpster. However, recycling helps recover their valuable components and reduces their environmental impact.


Luminaires refer to lighting fixtures, like bulbs and lamps. Proper disposal is absolutely necessary due to the potential for toxic materials in these electronics. This has only become more true with the amount of mercury in fluorescents.


Electronic toys — such as remote-controlled cars or talking baby dolls — are another major component of the world’s e-waste. It’s crucial to recycle or dispose of them responsibly to avoid environmental issues from leaky batteries and other electronic components.


Power tools and other electronic DIY equipment turn into e-waste when they’re no longer functional. Proper disposal and recycling can help prevent environmental pollution from their rechargeable batteries and other high-powered internal tech.

Medical Devices

Devices like old defibrillators or expired blood sugar testing equipment generate plenty of e-waste as well. Proper handling is crucial, and not only because of their sensitive nature — they’re e-waste and a biohazard in one.


Scientific equipment should also be recycled safely to avoid any environmental harm. From special monitors to tech controllers, these instruments are just as much a form of e-waste as any of these other types.


Automatic faucets, soda fountains, automated soap dispensers… the EPA considers these dispensers e-waste as well. With the advent of Freestyle machines and other flashier dispensers, this e-waste type continues to be on the rise.

The Environmental Impact of E-Waste

best state to own an ev
E-waste has a very real impact on our environment.

E-waste does more than just add to the growing number of landfills on our planet. It also has a significant and often detrimental impact on the environment. When old electronic devices like smartphones, computers, and TVs are thrown away, the toxic chemicals and valuable resources inside can no longer be properly dealt with. 

Many electronic devices contain hazardous materials like lead, mercury, and cadmium. When e-waste ends up in landfills (or worse, incinerated), these toxic substances leak out into the environment and contaminate everything it touches. Aquatic life is particularly vulnerable when toxins seep into waterways.

Not to mention, electronics are made from valuable resources like rare minerals and metals. Disposing of them without recycling means we lose these resources, leading to more mining and increased production. In turn, this results in further pollution and environmental degradation that harms wildlife and disrupts precious ecosystems.

Both the manufacturing and disposal of electronic devices require a ton of energy. Improperly managed e-waste only adds to that huge energy footprint, contributing to even more greenhouse gas emissions that further accelerate climate change. It’s a vicious cycle. Here’s how you can play your part to help stop it.

How to Recycle E-Waste

rare earth minerals
Proper recycling of e-waste helps protect the natural world.

To mitigate the environmental impact of electronic waste, it’s crucial you know how to recycle it properly. Proper disposal allows professionals to recover valuable materials and prevent toxic substances from polluting our planet. Additionally, this smart thinking helps extend the lifespan of electronic devices with the help of repair and refurbishment. This can help reduce the overall e-waste problem and lessen its impact on our environment at the same time.

Search for an electronics recycling center or collection point in your area. Many cities have dedicated facilities for this purpose. Many local government websites have comprehensive lists of trusted recycling centers in town. Once you’ve found a location, confirm what types of electronics they accept. Most places take things like old phones, computers, and TVs, but not all will take large appliances or other esoteric items.

Before you take your devices, make sure you clear any personal data. Leave the batteries and other components inside — the facility should take care of everything. Then, either bring your e-waste to the recycling center or arrange for a pickup service if available. If your electronics are still in good working condition, consider donating them or selling them for reuse. Recycling should be reserved for items beyond repair. The EPA’s website has more information on finding centers near you.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is e-waste?

E-waste, short for electronic waste, refers to discarded electronic devices, such as old computers, smartphones, TVs, and appliances. E-waste is problematic because many electronics contain toxic materials like lead, mercury, and cadmium. When improperly disposed of, these toxins can seep into the environment, polluting the soil, water, and air.

What should you do with old electronics?

The best practice is to recycle them at a dedicated e-waste recycling center. Recycling helps recover valuable materials and ensures responsible disposal. It’s not advisable to put e-waste in the trash because it can lead to environmental contamination. Proper recycling is a more environmentally friendly option.

What should you do with old devices before recycling them?

Before recycling, clear personal data from your old devices or have them wiped by professionals. If the device is still functional, you can consider donating or selling it. Different regions have other specific regulations regarding e-waste disposal. It’s essential to check local guidelines to ensure compliance.

How can you find an e-waste recycling center?

You can locate a nearby e-waste recycling center through online resources from your local government or by contacting your local waste management agency. The EPA also has ample resources on its website.

Why is recycling e-waste important?

Responsible e-waste disposal is vital because it helps protect the environment from contamination, conserves valuable resources, and reduces the energy and emissions associated with mining and manufacturing new electronics. It’s a critical step in sustainable waste management and environmental protection. After recycling facilities obtain the electronics, they recover valuable materials like metals and plastics. These materials can then be used in manufacturing new products.

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