The most common type of semiconductor material used is silicon. Silicon dioxide, or sand (the main material in computer chips). Other materials used in making computer chips include germanium and gallium arsenide.
The process of making a computer chip starts with a particular kind of sand called silica sand, which is made of silicon dioxide.
A silicon ingot is a cylindrical piece of extremely pure silicon grown in a controlled environment. Electronic-grade silicon, which has a purity of 99.9999 percent, is produced by a number of purification and filtering procedures.