- Out of all the notable cyber attacks the Stuxnet attack on the Iranian nuclear facility is one of the most baffling.
- No one really knows why the cyber attack was launched and who the creator and the perpetrators were.
- Supposedly perpetrated by American and Israeli security services, the attack remains a mystery.
First identified in 2010, cybersecurity experts credit the Stuxnet virus as the first official digital weapon. Although the history, origins and its creation are unclear, the virus had a specific target, nuclear processing facility equipment in Iran. Computers in this country accounted for over 60% of the global infected systems.
What is the Stuxnet Virus?
Stuxnet is a layered virus designed to attack systems with a specific configuration. The nuclear processing facility in Natanz, Iraq, which used supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) technology supported by Siemens Step 7 software. Stuxnet used a series of zero-day exploits to attack the systems with a Windows OS and the correct Siemens product.
From there, the virus attacked programmable logic controllers in the SCADA system to damage the equipment they run. At the same time, the virus sent back data indicating that everything is operating within normal parameters. This as the most harmful aspect of the attack. In the best-known attacks, the malware caused the failure of centrifuges used to extract nuclear material used in the weapons.
A History of the Stuxnet Virus
The hackers that developed Stuxnet are believed to have done so as part of a joint operation between the United States and Israel known as Operation Olympic Games. The goal was to disrupt Iran’s nuclear weapons development program by damaging their equipment.
The Original Target
In 2009, employees at the Iranian nuclear processing facility in Natanz noticed that their centrifuges were failing at an unexpected rate. The facility had been running 4,500 machines to enrich uranium gas, but the total had dropped to around 3,900. Machines continued to fail. Checks with antivirus software did not show any known infection. According to sensor data, the machines were operating properly. It would take another year for someone to identify the new Stuxnet virus.
Because hackers designed Stuxnet with a specific target in mind, it has not done much damage outside of the Iranian nuclear program. The malicious code does not affect computers that do not have the combination of a Windows system running Siemens SCADA software. A few countries outside of Iran reported infections, but these identifications resulted from better detection and not damage.
The Stuxnet Virus Attack Mechanism
The specific purpose of Stuxnet meant that it needed an attack mechanism that could damage its target without harming unrelated infected systems. The hackers performed this by writing the source code in three parts.
The Stuxnet Worm
The first step in the Stuxnet attack is infection. The initial contact requires a physical connection to an infected USB or computer. Because the nuclear processing facility was not connected to the internet, hackers infected machines in four separate companies that contracted with the facility. These contractors introduced the Stuxnet Worm that exploited gaps in the Windows system. The malicious code was now embedded in the network.
The Stuxnet Link File
Once the worm had infiltrated the system, the next step was duplication. A link file in the malware copied and spread the source code to the Siemens logic controllers that controlled equipment on the SCADA system.
The Stuxnet Rootkit
The final piece of Stuxnet source code is a rootkit program designed to hide malicious files and processes. This malicious code sends damaging instructions to the equipment and false data to the SCADA central monitor.
The purpose of Stuxnet was to operate under the radar. Unlike some other malware programs, the hackers did not want to give clear signs of infection. They wanted their virus to operate as long as possible before any effort to get rid of the malware. The complicated nature of the source code would also make the program difficult to remove.
IT personnel may not recognize the problem because there are no clear symptoms within the Windows system. Instead, operators will see the effects in their machinery and assume it is a mechanical error rather than a malware issue. The first sign of a Stuxnet virus infection may be equipment failure that continues despite replacement efforts.
The Stuxnet Virus is the first cyber weapon and possibly the most dangerous because it targeted nuclear systems in Iran. For additional information, check out this video from Upper Echelon.
Protecting Your System from the Stuxnet Virus
The original Stuxnet Virus is not a strong threat to most systems, and it is unclear whether the program is still active. There have been new viruses like Industroyer and Duqu based on the Stuxnet source code. However, hackers still use these new variants to attack industrial targets that use SCADA technology. If you are not using SCADA in your setting, Stuxnet is not a significant threat.
General Safety Principals
If you are concerned about Stuxnet virus prevention, the first line of defense is maintaining basic network safety protocols. The initial Stuxnet attack comes from a physical connection with an infected USB. Employees should receive clear instructions about not connecting unknown devices, strong password creation, and not clicking on unknown attachments. The IT department should also use antivirus screening to detect malicious files before they can attack the system.
The Best Antivirus Software for the Stuxnet Virus
The layered approach of Stuxnet makes it difficult to remove. Most antivirus programs do not fully remove the malware, but several programs such as Kaspersky, Adware, and McAfee do a decent job of detecting malicious files.
Siemens has developed a tool that will detect and get rid of Stuxnet files. However, the best option in many cases is manual removal by a cybersecurity expert who knows how Stuxnet infects the system.
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