History-Computer

Covering computing, gaming, all of tech

SSEM in 1948

SSEM (Small Scale Experimental Machine) – Everything You Need To Know

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In the early days of computers, sometimes all it took to change the history books was a single revolutionary idea. For the stored-program electronic digital computer, this single idea derived from a curious question: what if you could store both analog and digital information on the same storage device? It took many minds and many […]

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The Birth of the Modern Computer

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History of Computers and Computing, The birth of the modern computer So, who invented the computer? (Un)fortunately, there is not a simple answer to this question. The modern computer is such a complex amalgam of logic and engineering, that it would be ludicrous to single out any one person as THE INVENTOR. In this section […]

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Whirlwind – Complete History of the Whirlwind Computer

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Whirlwind Computer Jay Wright Forrester was born on July 14, 1918, and grew up on a cattle ranch in Anselmo, Nebraska, USA. While in local high school, he built a wind-driven, 12-volt electrical system using old car parts, and it gave the ranch its first electric power. After high school, in 1936 he enrolled in […]

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Electronic computer

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History of Computers and Computing, The birth of the electronic computer, Electronic computer ABC (Atanasoff/Berry Computer), John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry, 1939 Colossus, Maxwell Newman and Thomas Flowers, 1943 ENIAC, John Mauchly and John Eckert, 1945 SSEM, Frederic Williams and Tom Kilburn, 1948 Ferranti Mark 1, 1951 Whirlwind, Jay Forrester, 1951 PDP-1, Ben Gurley, 1959 […]

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Smal Part of Sage's CPU

SAGE Computer System Explained – Everything You Need To Know

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5 Facts about SAGE Computer System The full form of SAGE is a Semi-Automatic Ground-Environment computer. The weight of SAGE Computer System was more than 250 tons in total. During the 1950s, SAGE was the world’s largest computer project, ushering IBM into the new computing world. Between 1952 and 1955, computers accounted for 80% of […]

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DEC PDP-11 Computer

PDP-11 – Everything You Need to Know

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6 Facts about The DEC PDP-11 Computer If the DEC PDP-11 computer were to be manufactured today, it would cost around $140,000. The DEC PDP-11 computer was so successful it was cloned and copied by Eastern European Socialist Countries. The DEC PDP-11 computer is one of the world’s longest-serving computers as it is still in […]

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Ferranti Mark 1 Console

Ferranti Mark 1 Computer – Everything You Need To Know 

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Five Facts about Ferranti Mark 1 Computer Mark 1 displayed a 20-bit word as a single line of dots of electric charges on the surface of a Williams tube display, with each cathode tube storing 64 lines of dots. The Ferranti Mark 1 specification resembled the final Manchester Mark 1 standard exceptionally closely. To improve […]

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PDP-1 Explained – Everything You Need To Know

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3 Facts About PDP-1 The PDP- 1 is well-known for being the computer that played the most essential role in the development of hacker culture at MIT and BBN. The PDP-1 is the original hardware for playing Steve Russell’s Spacewar!, the world’s first minicomputer game. The PDP-1 is famous for being significant in the creation […]

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John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry

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   The ABC of John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry Working on his doctoral thesis in theoretical physics at the University of Wisconsin in 1929, the young John Vincent Atanasoff (see biography of John Atanasoff) the first time met a serious computational problem, being forced to perform complex calculations, using computing tools like slide rule and […]

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General View of the ENIAC computer

ENIAC Computer- Everything You Need To Know

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6 Facts about ENIAC Computer ENIAC, which meant “Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer,” was built between 1943 and 1946. John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert came up with the idea for ENIAC. ENIAC used nearly 17,500 vacuum tubes, 7,200 diodes, and miles of wire to construct the machine. ENIAC took up 1,800 square feet (170 […]

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The History of Colossus Computer

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Colossus computer of Max Newman and Tommy Flowers The WWII hindered the progress for computer inventors like Atanasoff and Zuse, but had the opposite effect on the first british steps toward creation of electronic computer. During the war, the Department of Communications of British Foreign Office created machines, which used electronic circuits to assist the […]

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Seymour Cray with the Cray-1 computer

Cray: Complete Guide — History, Products, Founding, and More

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The History of Cray: What to Know From the world’s fastest computer in the 1970s to modern exascale computing, Cray has been a leading supercomputer company since the start of the field. Cray is now a subsidiary of Hewlett Packard Enterprise but its history started with Seymour Cray founding Cray Research. The initial years of […]

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Kilburn in front of Atlas computer

Atlas Computer Explained – Everything You Need To Know

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3 Facts about Atlas Computer Atlas is considered one of the first supercomputers. It was the first computer to use virtual memory. It championed multiprogramming. Atlas Computer History The Atlas computer was developed by Tom Kilburn, an inventor and professor at the University of Manchester. Kilburn and his team began working on Atlas in 1956 […]

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touchscreen

Touch Screen Explained – Everything You Need To Know

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3 Facts about Touch Screen More than 90% of touchscreens are capacitive. Touchscreens have an average durability period of 3 years. Almost all touchscreen devices feature a Liquid-Crystal Display, LCD. Touch Screen History The concept of now-ubiquitous touch screen interface was put into words in October 1965, when Eric Arthur Johnson, an engineer at the […]

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Fritz Pfleumer and the magnetic tape device

Magnetic Tape Explained – Everything You Need To Know

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3 Facts about Magnetic Tape Magnetic tapes were initially created for audio storage. The device is approximately 20% faster than other types of storage devices. Magnetic tapes were invented in Germany. Magnetic tapes originally had a small storage capacity. Magnetic Tape History The magnetic tape is the oldest memory media for computers, still in use […]

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First Transistor 1947

Semiconductor Transistor

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4 Facts about the Semiconductor Transistor A semiconductor transistor is a device used to amplify or switch electrical impulses. The transistor is a fundamental component of modern electronics, and contains three terminals to connect to an electric circuit. In 1956, the Nobel Prize in Physics was given for creating the transistor which has been recognized […]

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Computer Scanner — Everything You Need To Know

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5 Facts About Computer Scanners The history of Computer scanners began when Rudolf Hell came up with the idea for the fax machine about 50 years ago. The scanner was then invented in Kiel, starting with the fax machine. The first image it scanned was of Walden, the son of the inventor of computers scanner. […]

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DATAR Guide: History, Origin, and More

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3 Facts About DATAR The work on the Comprehensive Display System (CDS) by the Royal Navy, which Canadian engineers were familiar with, sparked the development of the DATAR system. DATAR systems worked on drum memory The display of the DATAR was an adapted radar unit, and trackball and trigger were used as inputs. What Is […]

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The Complete History of the Modem

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3 Facts About The Modem “Modem” is an abbreviation of the device’s function, which is to act as a modulator-demodulator for data signals traversing analog and digital networks. As the product evolved, the transfer speeds increased not only because of the actual transfer rate, but also because of the protocols used to transfer data. Eventually […]

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printed circuit board

Printed Circuit Board Explained — Everything You Need To Know

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Four Facts about the Printed Circuit Board The first circuit board of any kind was invented in 1925 by Charles Ducas. It featured types of conductive material stencils over a wooden board. The inventor of the printed circuit board, Paul Eisler, inadvertently signed over PCB manufacturing and the patent rights to Technograph for one pound […]

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Modern-day wireless computer mouse.

Computer Mouse: Complete History

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Four Facts About the Computer Mouse Douglas Engelbart and Bill English named their first prototype after the rodent due to its shape. The name computer “mouse” has been used ever since the first prototype. The primary inventor of the mouse, Doug Engelbart, never received any royalties because the patent was held by the Stanford Research […]

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The first single-chip 16-bit microprocessor

Microprocessor Explained – Everything You Need To Know

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3 Facts About Microprocessor Microprocessors were initially called “Microcomputer on a chip” until 1972. You need at least two (2) months to create a microprocessor. Microprocessors are made from quartz, metals, silicon, and other chemicals. Microprocessor History Microprocessors are computer processors containing logic, arithmetic, and control circuitry needed for a computer’s CPU to function correctly. In […]

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Liquid Crystal Display

Liquid Crystal Display Explained – Everything You Need To Know

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3 Facts about Liquid Crystal Display Magnets do not affect LCDs. At least 200million+ Liquid Crystal Display TVs get sold every year. LCDs do not produce light. Liquid Crystal Display History A liquid crystal display (LCD) is a flat and thin panel used for displaying information on watches, phones, computer monitors, televisions, and numerous other […]

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Magnetic Drum Memory Explained – Everything You Need To Know

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Magnetic drum memory was a magnetic data storage device. Since its founding in 1932, the drum became the backbone of many early computers. It formed the primary working memory of the computer and sometimes served as the secondary storage. But later on, the magnetic core memory and hard disk drives came into existence and replaced […]

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Laser Printer

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6 Facts About Laser Printer IBM invented the first laser printer in 1985. It was known as the IBM 3800 and was capable of printing 180 pages per minute.  Each laser printer cartridge is equivalent to around one gallon of oil. The majority of the components in laser printer cartridges are recyclable. Initially, laser printers were […]

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Wireless bluetooth computer keyboard

Modern Computer Keyboard: Everything You Need to Know

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Computer keyboards are peripheral data input devices modeled after the typewriter keyboards era. Since the 1970s, computer keyboards have seen a notable transformation from the traditional paper tape and punched technology to interactions through teleprinters and keypunches. Five Facts About the Modern Computer Keyboard The development of the first modern computer keyboard was occasioned by […]

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IBM First Hard Drive

Hard Disk Explained – Everything You Need To Know

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5 Facts about Hard Disk  A hard disk contains numerous substances. Hard disk typically has limited spaces. The world’s smallest hard disk was invented in 2016 by Dutch scientists. Hard disks aren’t airtight. Hard drives can be easily passworded. Hard Disk History Hard disks, otherwise regarded as hard drives or disk drives, are magnetic disks […]

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floppy disk

Floppy Disk Explained: Everything You Need to Know

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Most people know that the floppy disk was invented in 1967 by a team led by Alan Shugart at IBM. However, you can give its ideation and invention credit to Yoshiro Nakamatsu, a Japanese inventor. Floppy disks have been a crucial storage source at a time when there were no other options. The ideal storage […]

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DRAM Dynamic Random Access Memory

DRAM Explained – Everything You Need To Know

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Five Facts about Dynamic Random Access Memory  Robert Dennard invented dynamic Random Access Memory in 1966 at IBM. Dynamic Random Access Memory is dynamic (or active) because it must be refreshed regularly, or the data stored in it will be lost. The most common type of RAM is dynamic random access memory (DRAM). DRAM as […]

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Vacuum tube

The Thermionic Tube Explained — Everything You Need to Know

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3 Facts About the Thermionic Tube The Thermionic tube goes by many names, to include vacuum tubes, vacuum diodes, thermionic tubes, the Fleming valve, and kenotron.  While the device has many names, the actual device only has three components. The device heats electrons, gives them away at one end of the tube, and receives them […]

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The CRT monitor of PDP-1.

Cathode Ray Tube Explained – Everything You Need To Know

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Modern-day display technologies continue to improve with each passing year, but throughout the mid-1900s, they didn’t really move an inch. While liquid crystal displays (LCD), organic light-emitting diodes (OLED), and plasma screens dominate the industry in the 21st century, cathode ray tube (CRT) display technology is what used to be king. While this tech is […]

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Compact Disc Player

Compact Disc Explained – Everything You Need To Know

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3 Facts about Compact Disc  Compact discs are 1.2mm thick with a diameter of 120mm. The Eagles 1976 album is the most sold CD ever, with over 38 million copies sold. The Visitors, an album by Abba, a Swedish pop group, was the first-ever created compact disc. Compact Disc History The first workable digital compact […]

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The Universal Serial Bus, USB

USB: Everything You Need to Know

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Universal Serial Bus Specs Versions Maximum Data Transfer Speed Connector Types Maximum Cable Length Maximum Charging Power USB 1 12MBps Type A & Type B 3m 500mA USB-2 480Mpbs Supports all connector types. 5m 15W USB 3 5Gpbs USB 3 USB-A (Type-A)USB 3 USB-BUSB-C 3m 12W USB 4 40Gbps USB C TBC 100W The Specifications […]

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Audion Vaccum Tube

Audion Vacuum Tube

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3 Facts about Audion Vacuum Tube It was the original vacuum tube with a control grid among the anode plate and the cathode filament (in the shape of a bent wire). Lee De Forest adjusted the current between the filament and the plate using the control grid, resulting in the first functional electronic amplifier. Audion’s […]

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Reading Machine of Tauschek

Optical Character Recognition (OCR) Explained — Everything You Need To Know

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Optical character recognition, often abbreviated as OCR, plays an enormous part in the text recognition software many of us rely on today through Adobe Acrobat, Google Drive, and the like. While most would assume that the ability to recognize and translate an image to text would be a modern-day invention based on some contemporary algorithm, […]

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integrated circuits

Integrated Circuit (IC) Explained — Everything You Need to Know

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3 Facts about the Circuit The Integrated Circuit was technically developed and invented by three different individuals, all unaware of each other’s work. Geoffrey Dummer conceptualized the design, Robert Noyce was granted the first patent, and Jack Kilby’s application was being reviewed while the first patent was granted.  Integrated circuits differ from their predecessors in […]

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Tabulating Machine

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5 Facts about Tabulating Machine Some significant facts about Tabulating machines are as follows. The tabulating machine was a counting machine used for the first for tabulating U.S. census data in 1890. Herman Hollerith invented the tabulating machine. It kept track of the number of cards that had a hole punched at a specific location. It […]

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Mechanical Calculator

Mechanical Calculators

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3 Facts about Mechanical Calculators The 17th century was the beginning of the history of mechanical calculators, the first machine being Pascal’s calculator, which was invented in 1642. The mechanical calculator was first invented after three years of research and 50 prototypes. In the 18th century, the first mechanical calculator that could perform a multiplication […]

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Pioneers

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History of Computers and Computing, Mechanical calculators, Pioneers The pioneers Some of the greatest people in European scientific history are involved in this affair. Admittedly, there are others, who attempted to create such devices, but nothing had survived to our time, e.g. the Dutch Jesuit-mathematician Jan Ciermans (1602-1648), who mentioned in a 1640 book, Annus […]

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The bases of digital computers

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The modern computer is a product of many technologies, developed in 19th and 20th centuries. Who are the people and companies, who made it possible? Computer Keyboard (typewriter) Electromechanical Relay of Joseph Henry Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) monitor Vacuum Tube of John Fleming Image Scanner Audion of Lee De Forest Magnetic Tape of Poulsen & […]

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Claude Perrault

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Portrait de l’Architecte Claude Perrault, Musée de l’Histoire de la Médecine, Paris The Abaque Rhabdologique of Claude Perrault The Parisian doctor of medicine Claude Perrault (see biography of Claude Perrault) was a remarkable person—a typical encyclopaedic scientist from the end of European Renaissance. Graduating as a doctor of medicine, in his long life he was […]

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Wilhelm Schickard and the Rotating Clock (Complete History)

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Wilhelm Schickard, portrait from 1632 Wilhelm Schickard Wilhelm Schickard (see biography of Schickard) was born in the small south german town Herrenberg, near Tübingen, and educated in the Protestant theological seminary Tübinger Stift, in Tübingen. He received his bachelor degree in 1609 and master degree in theology in 1611. In 1613 he became a Lutheran […]

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Leonardo da Vinci

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The Sketch of Leonardo da Vinci (Created with the expert advice of Mr. Silvio Hénin, Milan, Italy) Leonardo da Vinci (see biography of Leonardo da Vinci) is probably the most diversely talented person ever to have lived. He was remarkable painter, engineer, anatomist, architect, sculptor, musician, etc. During his life, Leonardo produced thousands of pages […]

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Pascaline Calculator

Pascaline Calculator Explained — Everything You Need To Know

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Facts About the Pascaline Calculator  This was a calculating device invented in 1642. The calculator went through 50 prototypes.  The calculator was publicly presented in 1645. Blaise Pascal invented the machine to help his father complete tax computations more efficiently. Pascal was only 18 when he invented the calculator. Pascaline Calculator History Blaise Pascal invented […]

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Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz – Complete Biography, History and Inventions

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Who Was Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz? Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz was a well-known German mathematician, physicist, and philosopher. Noted for his independent invention of calculus and metaphysics, Gottfried von Leibniz remains one of the greatest thinkers in history. He is well-known for his contributions to the history of philosophy and mathematics. He wrote extensively on various topics […]

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René Grillet de Roven

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René Grillet de Roven In 1673 the Parisian mechanician and watchmaker of His Royal Highness King Louis XIV—René Grillet de Roven (see biography of René Grillet), published a small book Curiositez mathematiques de l’invention du Sr Grillet horlogeur a Paris. The book describes several different inventions, but the majority of it is devoted to his […]

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Samuel Morland

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The Calculating Machines of Sir Samuel Morland The polymath Samuel Morland (see biography of Samuel Morland), was a notable English academic, diplomat, spy, inventor and mathematician of the 17th century, credited with early developments in relation to computing, hydraulics and steam power. He is an important person for this site, because in 1660s he devised […]

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Victor Adding Machine – History of the Victor Adding Machine Co.

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Victor Adding Machine – History of the Victor Adding Machine Co. Oliver David Johantgen (8 July 1875, Charleston, Indiana – 11 April 1932 in Evanston, Cook, Illinois) Victor Adding Machine Victor Adding Machine Co. was established in Chicago in 1918, with the chief designer (and one of the 3 owners) Oliver David Johantgen (1875-1932), an […]

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Ryoichi Yazu – Complete Biography, History, and Inventions

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Who was Ryoichi Yazu? Ryoichi Yazu was a Japanese inventor. He is well known for his invention of Japan’s first mechanical calculator. Though Ryoichi Yazu lived a very short life, he proved himself to many to be a very intelligent inventor in different fields, like from dictionaries to airplanes and later to mechanical calculating machines. […]

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