Technology has become an entrenched part of the human experience, even if it’s sometimes invisible. Nobody can “see” Wi-Fi, but we all understand that it allows us to interact with the internet. Although we don’t normally think about it, there is ‘invisible’ technology all around us, all the time.

In recent years, distrust in some of this technology has caused people to be wary of even common household objects like microwaves and cell phones. More recently, that wariness has extended into electric vehicle (EV) usage and the potential health implications of the “invisible dangers” associated with it.

Today, we are going to take a look at these health claims and determine if EMFs—the invisible “health danger” found in our homes—are something we have to worry about. We’ll also explore if that danger extends to the growing number of EVs that drive on our roads. Hopefully, we’ll quell some of your concerns!

What is an EMF?

As we explore what these terms mean, it’s important to understand that technical language doesn’t mean something is automatically dangerous or scary. Not knowing or understanding something can feel scary, but that doesn’t make the thing itself dangerous.

Most of the worry surrounding the ‘invisible’ danger some have been talking about refers to EMF and EMR.

EMF stands for electric and magnetic fields or, simply put, areas affected by the presence of electricity and magnetism. Colloquially, people refer to EMF as ‘radiation’ or “EMF radiation,” although radiation is technically just another word for energy.

An electric field is an area of invisible energy (radiation) caused by voltage—the “pressure” that pushes electrons down a wire. A magnetic field is an area of invisible energy caused by the movement of electric charges.

Let’s go over the important terms so far:

  • Radiation: the emission of energy through electromagnetic waves
  • EMF: electromagnetic field, a field created by electricity or magnetism
  • EMR: electromagnetic radiation, a type of radiation created by an electromagnetic field

It’s important to know that radiation isn’t harmful, it’s simply the emission of energy. In fact, your body is “radiating” energy right now, we just call it heat!

Radiation itself isn’t harmful, it’s the amount of radiation that can be harmful. The energy radiating from a warm sidewalk, for example, isn’t as dangerous as the radiating energy from an open flame. Calling radiation dangerous is as silly as calling water dangerous. It can be, but only in certain scenarios.

The Electromagnetic Spectrum

Knowing that all radiation isn’t inherently harmful leads us to our next step: not all EMRs and EMFs are harmful! In fact, EMR can be put on a spectrum that scientists call the “electromagnetic spectrum.” This spectrum spans from high-frequency to low-frequency energy waves.

The high-frequency radiation waves include things like gamma radiation (gamma rays), X-Rays, and UV rays.

Low-frequency radiation waves include things like radio waves (the ones you play in your car). Right in the middle of the spectrum is light!

Visible light—the rainbow and the colors that we see—are simply a type of radiation that our eyes and brain have evolved to see.

Deciding to “remove electromagnetic radiation” from your life isn’t just silly, it’s impossible!

Let’s recap this section:

  • Electromagnetic radiation is classified along a spectrum known as the “electromagnetic spectrum.”
  • The electromagnetic spectrum ranges from low-frequency EMR to high-frequency EMR.
  • The types of EMR include radio waves (the kind you listen to in your car), visible light, and X-rays.
Electromagnetic spectrum
The electromagnetic spectrum ranges from low- to high-frequency waves.

What Types of EMR and EMFs are Harmful?

Now that we understand the electromagnetic spectrum, it’s important to understand which ones are harmful.

Generally speaking, the most dangerous form of radiation to humans is known as “ionizing radiation.”

Ionizing radiation is radiation that has enough energy to knock electrons out of their orbit within atoms, essentially changing the chemical makeup of something. In humans, ionizing radiation can damage DNA and cause genetic problems, especially in large or extended dosages.

The most common form of ionizing radiation is UV light, which comes from the sun. This high-energy radiation can damage DNA, causing a type of cancer known as melanoma, or skin cancer. Other forms of ionizing radiation include X-Rays and gamma rays. The power of this radiation is why you wear a lead vest when getting X-rays at the doctor in order to limit your exposure.

Recent Studies on Low-Frequency Radiation and its Health Effects

Certain studies have come out that potentially show an increased risk for adverse health effects when consistently exposed to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields.

The types of low-level radiation that were studied can be found in power lines, televisions, TVs, mobile phones, and more.

Ultimately, however, these studies proved inconclusive. In fact, over 25,000 papers and scientific articles have been published on the topic over the past 30 years. The resulting analysis is as follows:

“Despite the feeling of some people that more research needs to be done, scientific knowledge in this area is now more extensive than for most chemicals. Based on a recent in-depth review of the scientific literature, the WHO concluded that current evidence does not confirm the existence of any health consequences from exposure to low level electromagnetic fields. However, some gaps in knowledge about biological effects exist and need further research.”

WHO International

To break down this segment:

  • The most harmful radiation is ionizing radiation like X-rays and UV light from the sun.
  • Over 25,000 research papers have been published, researching low-frequency electromagnetic radiation and its health effects.
  • Overall, studies did not confirm any health consequences.
  • There could be some gaps in knowledge around certain biological effects, but nothing that would warrant any amount of fear or worry that we know of now.

Do Electric Vehicles Emit EMFs?

It’s important to understand that all electric devices emit radiation and have a magnetic field. This applies to electric cars, the battery on a gas car, and even the cell phone in your hand.

The type of EMR in an electric vehicle is known as extremely low-frequency radiation, or ELF.

This is the result of the magnetic field that is emitted from the powerful electric motors that power the car. The real question isn’t “do EVs emit ELF magnetic fields?,” but, instead, “are the ELF magnetic fields emitted by EVs dangerous?”

As the research stands, probably not. There have been a lot of studies on this non-ionizing type of radiation with little conclusive evidence. When there is a paper that claims to have found something linking adverse health effects and ELFs, the papers are often highly criticized.

On the other hand, a lot of papers NOT finding a link also exist. The most conclusive study to date, performed by the EU-funded research project, EM Saftey, showed just that.

As a result, the WHO decided to list ELFs as “possibly cancer-causing,” although no definitive evidence has been provided. Should car makers take steps to limit ELF exposure for humans? Potentially. Is it that big of a deal? It doesn’t look like it for now.

What does this mean? Let’s recap:

  • All electric cars (and all vehicles for that matter) emit ELFs.
  • ELFs have been studied, and no conclusive trends have emerged so far.
  • It could be valuable to limit ELF exposure, but it doesn’t seem to be a pressing issue in any way right now.

Are EVs like Teslas Safe?

Since Tesla uses electric motors in their cars, they also emit ELFs as they operate.

As the EU-based research demonstrated with eleven cars, the ELFs and magnetic fields had the most intensity around the floor of the car, with it drastically dropping off the further up they measured. In fact, even at the floor level, the magnetic field directly on the floor of the car measured only 20% of the exposure recommendation as stated by the ICNIRP.

The ICNIRP is the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection and is committed to determining adverse health effects and safe exposure limits for all sorts of non-ionizing radiation. Further, measurements near head height only measured a mere 2% of the maximum recommended exposure limit by the ICNIRP.

Essentially, EVs and Teslas only hit fractions of the conservative limits placed by various organizations all over the world, 20% and 2% at the floor level and head level, respectively.

Conclusion

With all this information, it’s easy to feel a bit overwhelmed, especially if this is all new terminology.

Here are some important things to remember from the current research:

  • Radiation is simply energy—some can be harmful, but not all of it is.
  • EMFs and EMR are everywhere in the world around us, from the light from the sun to the heat from our bodies, and the invisible radiowaves in the air around us.
  • The most dangerous form of electromagnetic radiation is known as ionizing radiation since it has enough energy to cause damage to DNA and cause cancer.
  • The vast majority of EMR is non-ionizing and doesn’t have the ability to harm humans
  • Certain low-frequency waves, known as ELFs, have shown a potential ability to impact humans at high exposure limits, although we don’t fully know what those impacts are.
  • EV makers should probably limit ELF and magnetic field exposure, although scientists aren’t sure they are a real problem yet. But, of course, it never hurts to be safe.
  • Current EVs don’t have ELFs or magnetic fields that are powerful enough to harm humans, even if your head was placed on the floor.

The vast majority of the radiation we encounter in our life isn’t known to be harmful to us, although some can be—like the UV rays from the sun on a bright day.

Low-frequency magnetic fields (like those emitted from electric motors) may impact humans, but current studies are too inconclusive to cause us any worry.

In the meantime, EV makers should probably do their best to ensure no excess exposure happens.

Are EV and Tesla EMFs Safe? What the Science Says FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions) 

What is an EMF and is it harmful?

EMF stands for electromagnetic frequency, and their danger depends on the type of radiation they emit.

Some EMFS like the sun can cause skin damage (like sunburns), while others are harmless, like the radiowaves around you right now!

Do EVs emit EMFs?

Anything with electricity emits an electric field, including EVs and their electric motors. Electric motors emit a low-frequency magnetic field known as an extremely low-frequency (ELF) fields.

Is ELF magnetic field exposure dangerous?

Current studies on ELF magnetic field exposure are inconclusive and shouldn’t be a cause for worry in most instances.

Do Teslas have dangerous radiation?

Current studies show that the ELF magnetic radiation levels at the floor of EVs are only 20% of the potentially dangerous limit. Magnetic fields at head height are much less, making up only 2% of the potentially dangerous limit.

Is it safe to drive an EV or Tesla?

In regards to magnetic radiation and its dangers, consumers shouldn’t be worried about it, although carmakers could limit exposure just to be extra cautious.

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  • ICNIRP Available here: https://www.icnirp.org/
  • SINTEF Available here: https://www.sintef.no/en/latest-news/2014/no-danger-from-magnetic-fields-in-electric-cars/
  • Inside EVs Available here: https://insideevs.com/features/397201/magnetic-fields-evs-health-risks/
  • NCBI - Effects of whole body exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) on serum and liver lipid levels Available here: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2203969/#:~:text=Extremely%20low%2Dfrequency%20electromagnetic%20fields%20exposure%20is%20generally%20believed%20to,3%2C7%2C8%5D.
  • WHO Available here: https://www.who.int/news-room/questions-and-answers/item/radiation-ionizing-radiation#:~:text=Ionizing%20radiation%20is%20radiation%20with,to%20become%20charged%20or%20ionized.
  • Long-Term Monitoring of Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields in Electric Vehicles Available here: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6801816/