Amazon’s Kuiper vs. Fiber Internet: What’s the Difference?

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Amazon’s Kuiper vs. Fiber Internet: What’s the Difference?

Fiber internet is the fastest form of internet connectivity an Internet Service Provider can deliver. Optical fiber networks routinely transmit data at multi-gigabit speeds with symmetry between uplink and downlink speeds, which is uncommon in other networking technologies. Many developing countries are taking advantage of the benefits of fiber by upgrading their existing networks. However, the fiber broadband upgrades are largely limited to metropolitan areas. In fact, over 14.5 million Americans in rural areas have yet to access a broadband internet connection of any kind. Therefore, Amazon is developing a $10 billion satellite internet network, capable of providing broadband speeds of up to 1Gbps anywhere on Earth. In this article, we compare these two technologies and ask what’s the difference between Amazon’s Kuiper and Fiber Internet?

Amazon’s Kuiper vs. Fiber: Side-by-Side Comparison

Amazon KuiperFiber
What it isProposed satellite broadband internet service provider (ISP)Fiber optic broadband internet technology
Primary useBroadband internet accessBroadband internet access
Initial releaseUnder developmentThe 1950s
Influential developersRajeev Badyal (President of Project Kuiper), Dave Limp (Senior Vice President Amazon Devices and Services), United Launch Alliance, Arianespace, Blue Origin,J eff Bezos, Jarrett Jones (Blue Origin)Daniel Colladon, Jacques Babinet, Narinder Singh Kapany, Imperial College London, Charles K. Kao, George A. Hockham, Standard Telephones, and Cables
Max uplink speedunknown1Gbps+
Max downlink speed1Gbps (proposed)6Gbps+
Latency ~40ms3.33ms
Equipment required Customer terminal (proposed)An optical network terminal (ONT), Modems, Routers
Locations available:Worldwide 36% of fixed broadband in 38 OECD member countries,
43% of US residents have access to fiber broadband
starlink vs fiber
Fiber-optic communication is a method of transmitting information from one place to another by sending pulses of infrared light through an optical fiber.


Amazon’s Kuiper vs. Fiber: What’s The Difference?

Fiber is becoming the standard for broadband internet access and a benchmark that Amazon’s new satellite needs to measure up to if it is going to become a widely adopted commercial success. So, let’s look at the important differences between these two telecommunication technologies.


Fiber broadband is fixed, transferring data over fiber optic cables. Then, data is transmitted using high-frequency pulses of light. In contrast, Project Kuiper’s satellite internet transfers data wirelessly, using the Ka-band of the radio spectrum. This major difference determines the speed and coverage that each technology can achieve. 


Because Amazon’s new ISP uses thousands of orbiting satellites, we can access it using an antenna exposed to the open sky from any location on Earth. This means that people that live in extremely remote or inaccessible locations can access broadband internet. 

Fiber’s coverage is much more limited and currently stands at just over a third of fixed broadband coverage globally. Fiber optic cables have to be laid and run to buildings to provide connectivity. Unfortunately, this is extremely difficult and expensive in rural areas where housing density is low. 


Fiber broadband is known for its multi-gigabit speeds, due to the data being pulsed at the speed of light with relatively little latency or attenuation. In contrast, satellite internet has the challenge of the satellite broadcast signal penetrating the ionosphere, which greatly weakens it. Therefore, Amazon is seeking to overcome the distance and inherent high latency of satellite communications by placing the satellites at a Low Earth Orbit. In that case, the signal does not have to travel as far. By doing this, Project Kuiper hopes to achieve speeds of up to 1Gbps.

Customer Equipment

Like cable internet or DSL, ISPs deliver fiber internet directly to the home. The end-user end of the fiber network has an optical network terminal (ONT). This unit then contains the technology that translates the light pulses of fiber into an electrical signal that is transferred to a router for broadcast via Wi-Fi.

So far, we know that Project Kuiper has developed a customer terminal for sending and receiving satellite internet data. However, Amazon has not yet explained how end-user devices access the network, or if a router or modem will be required. 

Customer Costs

Fiber broadband has fewer upfront costs when compared to Kuiper and other satellite-based ISPs. Most of the leading ISPs will offer fiber installation for no more than $100, along with a modem and router that you can purchase or hire. In addition, fiber broadband packages are available with advertised download speeds of up to 6Gbps. This newer form of fixed broadband is the most expensive, with service charges that can exceed $100 per month. 

Satellite internet has massive upfront costs because it uses a special antenna that can transmit and receive the satellite signal. Amazon has already said that its antenna, known as a terminal, costs at least $400 to build. This may indicate that even with the best of intentions, Amazon’s satellite internet is initially going to be expensive. 

What is Project Kuiper?

Project Kuiper is the name of Amazon’s new satellite internet service. The company proposes to launch over 3,000 small satellites to create a constellation that can provide internet coverage globally. R&D for this project commenced in 2018. Right now it’s in development, but it may be available to use as early as the end of 2024.

Amazon has created Project Kuiper to help deliver broadband internet to the billions of people who are on the wrong side of the digital divide. Further, by providing internet connectivity via satellite, without the costs and upheaval of installing wired telecommunications, Kuiper could provide reliable access to the many opportunities provided by the internet, particularly its economic and educational opportunities. 

Project Kuiper is targeting the notable service gaps for broadband internet and leveraging Amazon’s expertise in innovation and considerable networking resources. So far, Amazon has sunk more than $10 billion into this initiative, which is led by the Devices and Services division of Amazon. Project Kuiper’s president is Rajeev Badyal, who is also part of NASA’s National Space Council Users Advisory Group. 


Amazon’s satellite internet project is currently based in a dedicated facility in Redmond, Washington. As the project progresses, this facility will transform into a state-of-the-art satellite production facility, building up to four satellites per day. Further, a team of over 1,000 engineers, programmers, and support staff are working to make this venture a success, lending their expertise from a wide range of industries.

The project has three key areas of development:

  1. The constellation of 3236 Low Earth Orbit satellites.
  2. Ground networking and infrastructure that includes technology for monitoring the Kuiper satellite constellation and ensuring they work properly. 
  3. Customer terminals, which serve as network gateways for satellite internet. 

Amazon expects to deliver networking speeds of up to 1Gbps, but right now the pressure is on to get the satellites built and launched. Amazon received a license for its project in 2020, but it has a deadline of 2026 to have all satellites launched and operational.

What is Fiber Internet?

Fiber internet is a next-generation access (NGA) technology that uses optical fiber for fast, lossless transmission of data over long distances. Fiber internet is considered the successor technology to the old copper telecommunications infrastructure, particularly in the area of high-speed broadband internet. 

Efforts are currently underway to make fiber internet the standard for broadband internet access in the USA. As fiber moves into cities and neighborhoods, ISPs are expecting to improve the speed and quality of service (QoS) they provide for the end-user significantly.

Key benefits of fiber optic broadband include:

  • High bit rates of data transfer
  • Massive bandwidth
  • Low to no latency 
  • Low to no attenuation
  • Transmission is interference-free
  • Ability to cope with high throughput applications
  • Able to provide long-distance backhaul

The advantages of fiber internet come from the unique properties of optical fiber, which uses fine hair-like strands of glass as a transmission medium instead of copper. Data is transmitted down the optical fiber cable as pulses of light rather than an electrical signal, which transforms the speed and robustness of transmitted data and shields it from interference. 

Though optical fiber has existed for over 50 years, it is only now being applied widely in the telecommunications infrastructure. It is capable of high-fidelity transmission of IP data packets, voice, and video with an easy conversion to an electrical signal at any point in a network.

Starlink vs Amazon's Project Kuiper
Satellite internet is optimal for people in rural areas and the developing world.


Amazon’s Kuiper vs. Fiber: Must-Know Facts

  • Blue Origin, Jeff Bezos’ aerospace and defense company is partnering in the satellite launches for Project Kuiper. 
  • Amazon is determined to deliver its satellite internet at a low cost in keeping with its other technology, like Echo Dot, Kindle, or the FireTV Stick.
  • The standard terminal from Amazon’s Project Kuiper can deliver a 400Mbps internet speed. 
  • Despite the advancement of fiber, cable internet still dominates the US home broadband market.
  • More than 60 million US homes are now passed by fiber cables. 
  • Amazon has already secured almost 100 heavy-lift launches to be able to send over 3,000 satellites into space within the next 3 years. 
  • Light pollution from the thousands of satellites that are currently orbiting the Earth is threatening the study of astronomy. According to leading astronomers, if the light or skyglow from satellites increases beyond 10%, it will wipe out the ability to undertake scientific studies of the night sky. 
  • The light signaling of fiber broadband is pulsed at the following frequencies: 850nm, 1300nm, 1310nm, or 1550nm. Fiber internet uses the infrared portion of the light spectrum. 
  • The first two prototype satellites of Project Kuiper are due to be deployed during 2023. 

Amazon’s Kuiper vs. Fiber: Final Thoughts

Fiber broadband and satellite broadband are two innovative technologies that have the potential to transform telecommunications in the 21st century. The coverage of satellite internet is remarkable and overcomes a major hurdle that has dogged efforts to increase internet access in remote areas. However, concerns remain about the cost, accessibility, and the environmental impact of 3,236 orbiting satellites placed over our heads by a private company.

Frequently Asked Questions

What does Low Earth Orbit mean?

Low Earth Orbit, known as LEO, refers to an orbit occupied by a satellite that is up to a maximum of 2,000 kilometers (about 1,243 miles) above Earth. For comparison, a Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) is 20,200 kilometers (12,600 miles) above Earth, and a High Earth Orbit (HEO) is the furthest away at 35,786km (22,236 miles) from Earth. 

How long will a Project Kuiper satellite take to orbit the Earth?

Low-altitude satellites like Amazon’s have an orbital period of between 90 minutes and two hours.

How will Project Kuiper’s satellites get into space?

Amazon is working with launch partners that include Jeff Bezos’ Blue Origin, Arianespace, and United Launch Alliance to undertake the launches. To deliver the satellites, heavy-lift launch vehicles (HLVs) are used as these powerful rockets are capable of lifting between 44,000 to 110,000lb (20,000 to 50,000kg) of additional weight into a Low Earth Orbit.

Is a constellation of thousands of orbiting satellites safe?

This is a largely unanswered question, but we know that Elon Musk’s Starlink constellation of LEO satellites has been responsible for more than 90% of near collisions (1600 events) between orbiting objects since their launch in May 2019.

What is Fiber to the Home (FTTH)?

Fiber to the Home (FTTH) is the delivery of a fiber broadband connection that terminates within a residential dwelling, completely replacing copper or DSL.

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